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                     The Apache HTTP Server Project 
 
                        http://httpd.apache.org/ 
 
                             February 2002 
 
The Apache Project is a collaborative software development effort aimed 
at creating a robust, commercial-grade, featureful, and freely-available 
source code implementation of an HTTP (Web) server.  The project is 
jointly managed by a group of volunteers located around the world, using 
the Internet and the Web to communicate, plan, and develop the server and 
its related documentation.  These volunteers are known as the Apache Group. 
In addition, hundreds of users have contributed ideas, code, and 
documentation to the project.  This file is intended to briefly describe 
the history of the Apache Group, recognize the many contributors, and 
explain how you can join the fun too. 
 
In February of 1995, the most popular server software on the Web was the 
public domain HTTP daemon developed by Rob McCool at the National Center 
for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. 
However, development of that httpd had stalled after Rob left NCSA in 
mid-1994, and many webmasters had developed their own extensions and bug 
fixes that were in need of a common distribution.  A small group of these 
webmasters, contacted via private e-mail, gathered together for the purpose 
of coordinating their changes (in the form of "patches").  Brian Behlendorf 
and Cliff Skolnick put together a mailing list, shared information space, 
and logins for the core developers on a machine in the California Bay Area, 
with bandwidth and diskspace donated by HotWired and Organic Online. 
By the end of February, eight core contributors formed the foundation 
of the original Apache Group: 
 
   Brian Behlendorf        Roy T. Fielding          Rob Hartill 
   David Robinson          Cliff Skolnick           Randy Terbush 
   Robert S. Thau          Andrew Wilson 
 
with additional contributions from 
 
   Eric Hagberg            Frank Peters             Nicolas Pioch 
 
Using NCSA httpd 1.3 as a base, we added all of the published bug fixes 
and worthwhile enhancements we could find, tested the result on our own 
servers, and made the first official public release (0.6.2) of the Apache 
server in April 1995.  By coincidence, NCSA restarted their own development 
during the same period, and Brandon Long and Beth Frank of the NCSA Server 
Development Team joined the list in March as honorary members so that the 
two projects could share ideas and fixes. 
 
The early Apache server was a big hit, but we all knew that the codebase 
needed a general overhaul and redesign.  During May-June 1995, while 
Rob Hartill and the rest of the group focused on implementing new features 
for 0.7.x (like pre-forked child processes) and supporting the rapidly growing 
Apache user community, Robert Thau designed a new server architecture 
(code-named Shambhala) which included a modular structure and API for better 
extensibility, pool-based memory allocation, and an adaptive pre-forking 
process model.  The group switched to this new server base in July and added 
the features from 0.7.x, resulting in Apache 0.8.8 (and its brethren) 
in August. 
 
After extensive beta testing, many ports to obscure platforms, a new set 
of documentation (by David Robinson), and the addition of many features 
in the form of our standard modules, Apache 1.0 was released on 
December 1, 1995. 
 
Less than a year after the group was formed, the Apache server passed 
NCSA's httpd as the #1 server on the Internet. 
 
The survey by Netcraft (http://www.netcraft.com/survey/) shows that Apache 
is today more widely used than all other web servers combined. 
 
 ============================================================================ 
 
Current Apache Group in alphabetical order as of 2 April 2002: 
 
   Greg Ames              IBM Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA 
   Aaron Bannert          California 
   Brian Behlendorf       Collab.Net, California  
   Ken Coar               IBM Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA 
   Mark J. Cox            Red Hat, UK 
   Lars Eilebrecht        Freelance Consultant, Munich, Germany  
   Ralf S. Engelschall    Cable & Wireless Deutschland, Munich, Germany 
   Justin Erenkrantz      University of California, Irvine 
   Roy T. Fielding        Day Software, California  
   Tony Finch             Covalent Technologies, California 
   Dean Gaudet            Transmeta Corporation, California  
   Dirk-Willem van Gulik  Covalent Technologies, California  
   Brian Havard           Australia 
   Ian Holsman            CNET, California 
   Ben Hyde               Gensym, Massachusetts 
   Jim Jagielski          jaguNET Access Services, Maryland  
   Manoj Kasichainula     Collab.Net, California 
   Alexei Kosut           Stanford University, California  
   Martin Kraemer         Munich, Germany 
   Ben Laurie             Freelance Consultant, UK  
   Rasmus Lerdorf         Yahoo!, California 
   Daniel Lopez Ridruejo  Covalent Technologies, California 
   Doug MacEachern        Covalent Technologies, California 
   Aram W. Mirzadeh       CableVision, New York  
   Chuck Murcko           The Topsail Group, Pennsylvania  
   Brian Pane             CNET Networks, California 
   Sameer Parekh          California  
   David Reid             UK 
   William A. Rowe, Jr.   Covalent, Illinois 
   Wilfredo Sanchez       Apple Computer, California 
   Cliff Skolnick         California 
   Marc Slemko            Canada  
   Joshua Slive           Canada 
   Greg Stein             California 
   Bill Stoddard          IBM Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC 
   Sander Striker         The Netherlands 
   Paul Sutton            Seattle 
   Randy Terbush          Covalent Technologies, California  
   Jeff Trawick           IBM Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC 
   Cliff Woolley          University of Virginia 
 
Apache Emeritus (old group members now off doing other things) 
 
   Ryan Bloom             California 
   Rob Hartill            Internet Movie DB, UK  
   David Robinson         Cambridge University, UK 
   Robert S. Thau         MIT, Massachusetts 
   Andrew Wilson          Freelance Consultant, UK  
    
Other major contributors 
 
   Howard Fear (mod_include), Florent Guillaume (language negotiation), 
   Koen Holtman (rewrite of mod_negotiation), 
   Kevin Hughes (creator of all those nifty icons), 
   Brandon Long and Beth Frank (NCSA Server Development Team, post-1.3), 
   Ambarish Malpani (Beginning of the NT port), 
   Rob McCool (original author of the NCSA httpd 1.3), 
   Paul Richards (convinced the group to use remote CVS after 1.0), 
   Garey Smiley (OS/2 port), Henry Spencer (author of the regex library). 
 
Many 3rd-party modules, frequently used and recommended, are also 
freely-available and linked from the related projects page: 
<http://modules.apache.org/>, and their authors frequently 
contribute ideas, patches, and testing. 
 
Hundreds of people have made individual contributions to the Apache 
project.  Patch contributors are listed in the CHANGES file. 
Frequent contributors have included Petr Lampa, Tom Tromey, James H. 
Cloos Jr., Ed Korthof, Nathan Neulinger, Jason S. Clary, Jason A. Dour, 
Michael Douglass, Tony Sanders, Brian Tao, Michael Smith, Adam Sussman, 
Nathan Schrenk, Matthew Gray, and John Heidemann. 
 
 ============================================================================ 
 
How to become involved in the Apache project 
 
There are several levels of contributing.  If you just want to send 
in an occasional suggestion/fix, then you can just use the bug reporting 
form at <http://httpd.apache.org/bug_report.html>.  You can also subscribe 
to the announcements mailing list (announce-subscribe@httpd.apache.org) which 
we use to broadcast information about new releases, bugfixes, and upcoming 
events.  There's a lot of information about the development process (much of 
it in serious need of updating) to be found at <http://httpd.apache.org/dev/>. 
 
If you'd like to become an active contributor to the Apache project (the 
group of volunteers who vote on changes to the distributed server), then 
you need to start by subscribing to the dev@httpd.apache.org mailing list. 
One warning though: traffic is high, 1000 to 1500 messages/month. 
To subscribe to the list, send an email to dev-subscribe@httpd.apache.org. 
We recommend reading the list for a while before trying to jump in to  
development. 
 
   NOTE: The developer mailing list (dev@httpd.apache.org) is not 
   a user support forum; it is for people actively working on development 
   of the server code and documentation, and for planning future 
   directions.  If you have user/configuration questions, send them 
   to users list <http://httpd.apache.org/userslist> or to the USENET 
   newsgroup "comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix".or for windows users, 
   the newsgroup "comp.infosystems.www.servers.ms-windows". 
 
There is a core group of contributors (informally called the "core") 
which was formed from the project founders and is augmented from time 
to time when core members nominate outstanding contributors and the 
rest of the core members agree.  The core group focus is more on 
"business" issues and limited-circulation things like security problems 
than on mainstream code development.  The term "The Apache Group" 
technically refers to this core of project contributors. 
 
The Apache project is a meritocracy -- the more work you have done, the more 
you are allowed to do.  The group founders set the original rules, but 
they can be changed by vote of the active members.  There is a group 
of people who have logins on our server (apache.org) and access to the 
CVS repository.  Everyone has access to the CVS snapshots.  Changes to 
the code are proposed on the mailing list and usually voted on by active 
members -- three +1 (yes votes) and no -1 (no votes, or vetoes) are needed 
to commit a code change during a release cycle; docs are usually committed 
first and then changed as needed, with conflicts resolved by majority vote. 
 
Our primary method of communication is our mailing list. Approximately 40 
messages a day flow over the list, and are typically very conversational in 
tone. We discuss new features to add, bug fixes, user problems, developments 
in the web server community, release dates, etc.  The actual code development 
takes place on the developers' local machines, with proposed changes 
communicated using a patch (output of a unified "diff -u oldfile newfile" 
command), and committed to the source repository by one of the core 
developers using remote CVS.  Anyone on the mailing list can vote on a 
particular issue, but we only count those made by active members or people 
who are known to be experts on that part of the server.  Vetoes must be 
accompanied by a convincing explanation. 
 
New members of the Apache Group are added when a frequent contributor is 
nominated by one member and unanimously approved by the voting members. 
In most cases, this "new" member has been actively contributing to the 
group's work for over six months, so it's usually an easy decision. 
 
The above describes our past and current (as of July 2000) guidelines, 
which will probably change over time as the membership of the group 
changes and our development/coordination tools improve. 
 
 ============================================================================ 
 
The Apache Software Foundation (www.apache.org) 
 
The Apache Software Foundation exists to provide organizational, legal, 
and financial support for the Apache open-source software projects. 
Founded in June 1999 by the Apache Group, the Foundation has been 
incorporated as a membership-based, not-for-profit corporation in order 
to ensure that the Apache projects continue to exist beyond the participation 
of individual volunteers, to enable contributions of intellectual property 
and funds on a sound basis, and to provide a vehicle for limiting legal 
exposure while participating in open-source software projects.  
 
You are invited to participate in The Apache Software Foundation. We welcome 
contributions in many forms.  Our membership consists of those individuals 
who have demonstrated a commitment to collaborative open-source software 
development through sustained participation and contributions within the 
Foundation's projects.  Many people and companies have contributed towards 
the success of the Apache projects.  
 
 ============================================================================ 
 
Why Apache Is Free 
 
Apache exists to provide a robust and commercial-grade reference 
implementation of the HTTP protocol.  It must remain a platform upon which 
individuals and institutions can build reliable systems, both for 
experimental purposes and for mission-critical purposes.  We believe the 
tools of online publishing should be in the hands of everyone, and 
software companies should make their money providing value-added services 
such as specialized modules and support, amongst other things.  We realize 
that it is often seen as an economic advantage for one company to "own" a 
market - in the software industry that means to control tightly a 
particular conduit such that all others must pay.  This is typically done 
by "owning" the protocols through which companies conduct business, at the 
expense of all those other companies.  To the extent that the protocols of 
the World Wide Web remain "unowned" by a single company, the Web will 
remain a level playing field for companies large and small. Thus, 
"ownership" of the protocol must be prevented, and the existence of a 
robust reference implementation of the protocol, available absolutely for 
free to all companies, is a tremendously good thing.   
 
Furthermore, Apache is an organic entity; those who benefit from it 
by using it often contribute back to it by providing feature enhancements, 
bug fixes, and support for others in public newsgroups.  The amount of 
effort expended by any particular individual is usually fairly light, but 
the resulting product is made very strong.  This kind of community can 
only happen with freeware -- when someone pays for software, they usually 
aren't willing to fix its bugs.  One can argue, then, that Apache's 
strength comes from the fact that it's free, and if it were made "not 
free" it would suffer tremendously, even if that money were spent on a 
real development team. 
 
We want to see Apache used very widely -- by large companies, small 
companies, research institutions, schools, individuals, in the intranet 
environment, everywhere -- even though this may mean that companies who 
could afford commercial software, and would pay for it without blinking, 
might get a "free ride" by using Apache.  We would even be happy if some 
commercial software companies completely dropped their own HTTP server 
development plans and used Apache as a base, with the proper attributions 
as described in the LICENSE file. 
 
Thanks for using Apache!