www.pudn.com > libusb-jni.zip > linux_usbfs.c, change:2012-04-20,size:67460b


/*
 * Linux usbfs backend for libusb
 * Copyright (C) 2007-2009 Daniel Drake <dsd@gentoo.org>
 * Copyright (c) 2001 Johannes Erdfelt <johannes@erdfelt.com>
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
 */

#include <config.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <poll.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/utsname.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include "libusb.h"
#include "libusbi.h"
#include "linux_usbfs.h"

/* sysfs vs usbfs:
 * opening a usbfs node causes the device to be resumed, so we attempt to
 * avoid this during enumeration.
 *
 * sysfs allows us to read the kernel's in-memory copies of device descriptors
 * and so forth, avoiding the need to open the device:
 *  - The binary "descriptors" file was added in 2.6.23.
 *  - The "busnum" file was added in 2.6.22
 *  - The "devnum" file has been present since pre-2.6.18
 *  - the "bConfigurationValue" file has been present since pre-2.6.18
 *
 * If we have bConfigurationValue, busnum, and devnum, then we can determine
 * the active configuration without having to open the usbfs node in RDWR mode.
 * We assume this is the case if we see the busnum file (indicates 2.6.22+).
 * The busnum file is important as that is the only way we can relate sysfs
 * devices to usbfs nodes.
 *
 * If we also have descriptors, we can obtain the device descriptor and active 
 * configuration without touching usbfs at all.
 *
 * The descriptors file originally only contained the active configuration
 * descriptor alongside the device descriptor, but all configurations are
 * included as of Linux 2.6.26.
 */

/* endianness for multi-byte fields:
 *
 * Descriptors exposed by usbfs have the multi-byte fields in the device
 * descriptor as host endian. Multi-byte fields in the other descriptors are
 * bus-endian. The kernel documentation says otherwise, but it is wrong.
 */

static const char *usbfs_path = NULL;

/* use usbdev*.* device names in /dev instead of the usbfs bus directories */
static int usbdev_names = 0;

/* Linux 2.6.32 adds support for a bulk continuation URB flag. this basically
 * allows us to mark URBs as being part of a specific logical transfer when
 * we submit them to the kernel. then, on any error except a cancellation, all
 * URBs within that transfer will be cancelled and no more URBs will be
 * accepted for the transfer, meaning that no more data can creep in.
 *
 * The BULK_CONTINUATION flag must be set on all URBs within a bulk transfer
 * (in either direction) except the first.
 * For IN transfers, we must also set SHORT_NOT_OK on all URBs except the
 * last; it means that the kernel should treat a short reply as an error.
 * For OUT transfers, SHORT_NOT_OK must not be set. it isn't needed (OUT
 * transfers can't be short unless there's already some sort of error), and
 * setting this flag is disallowed (a kernel with USB debugging enabled will
 * reject such URBs).
 */
static int supports_flag_bulk_continuation = -1;

/* Linux 2.6.31 fixes support for the zero length packet URB flag. This
 * allows us to mark URBs that should be followed by a zero length data
 * packet, which can be required by device- or class-specific protocols.
 */
static int supports_flag_zero_packet = -1;

/* clock ID for monotonic clock, as not all clock sources are available on all
 * systems. appropriate choice made at initialization time. */
static clockid_t monotonic_clkid = -1;

/* do we have a busnum to relate devices? this also implies that we can read
 * the active configuration through bConfigurationValue */
static int sysfs_can_relate_devices = 0;

/* do we have a descriptors file? */
static int sysfs_has_descriptors = 0;

struct linux_device_priv {
	char *sysfs_dir;
	unsigned char *dev_descriptor;
	unsigned char *config_descriptor;
};

struct linux_device_handle_priv {
	int fd;
};

enum reap_action {
	NORMAL = 0,
	/* submission failed after the first URB, so await cancellation/completion
	 * of all the others */
	SUBMIT_FAILED,

	/* cancelled by user or timeout */
	CANCELLED,

	/* completed multi-URB transfer in non-final URB */
	COMPLETED_EARLY,

	/* one or more urbs encountered a low-level error */
	ERROR,
};

struct linux_transfer_priv {
	union {
		struct usbfs_urb *urbs;
		struct usbfs_urb **iso_urbs;
	};

	enum reap_action reap_action;
	int num_urbs;
	unsigned int num_retired;
	enum libusb_transfer_status reap_status;

	/* next iso packet in user-supplied transfer to be populated */
	int iso_packet_offset;
};

static void _get_usbfs_path(struct libusb_device *dev, char *path)
{
	if (usbdev_names)
		snprintf(path, PATH_MAX, "%s/usbdev%d.%d",
			usbfs_path, dev->bus_number, dev->device_address);
	else
		snprintf(path, PATH_MAX, "%s/%03d/%03d",
			usbfs_path, dev->bus_number, dev->device_address);
}

static struct linux_device_priv *_device_priv(struct libusb_device *dev)
{
	return (struct linux_device_priv *) dev->os_priv;
}

static struct linux_device_handle_priv *_device_handle_priv(
	struct libusb_device_handle *handle)
{
	return (struct linux_device_handle_priv *) handle->os_priv;
}

/* check dirent for a /dev/usbdev%d.%d name
 * optionally return bus/device on success */
static int _is_usbdev_entry(struct dirent *entry, int *bus_p, int *dev_p)
{
	int busnum, devnum;

	if (sscanf(entry->d_name, "usbdev%d.%d", &busnum, &devnum) != 2)
		return 0;

	usbi_dbg("found: %s", entry->d_name);
	if (bus_p != NULL)
		*bus_p = busnum;
	if (dev_p != NULL)
		*dev_p = devnum;
	return 1;
}

static int check_usb_vfs(const char *dirname)
{
	DIR *dir;
	struct dirent *entry;
	int found = 0;

	dir = opendir(dirname);
	if (!dir)
		return 0;

	while ((entry = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
		if (entry->d_name[0] == '.')
			continue;

		/* We assume if we find any files that it must be the right place */
		found = 1;
		break;
	}

	closedir(dir);
	return found;
}

static const char *find_usbfs_path(void)
{
	const char *path = "/dev/bus/usb";
	const char *ret = NULL;

	if (check_usb_vfs(path)) {
		ret = path;
	} else {
		path = "/proc/bus/usb";
		if (check_usb_vfs(path))
			ret = path;
	}

	/* look for /dev/usbdev*.* if the normal places fail */
	if (ret == NULL) {
		struct dirent *entry;
		DIR *dir;

		path = "/dev";
		dir = opendir(path);
		if (dir != NULL) {
			while ((entry = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
				if (_is_usbdev_entry(entry, NULL, NULL)) {
					/* found one; that's enough */
					ret = path;
					usbdev_names = 1;
					break;
				}
			}
			closedir(dir);
		}
	}

	if (ret != NULL)
		usbi_dbg("found usbfs at %s", ret);

	return ret;
}

/* the monotonic clock is not usable on all systems (e.g. embedded ones often
 * seem to lack it). fall back to REALTIME if we have to. */
static clockid_t find_monotonic_clock(void)
{
#ifdef CLOCK_MONOTONIC
	struct timespec ts;
	int r;

	/* Linux 2.6.28 adds CLOCK_MONOTONIC_RAW but we don't use it
	 * because it's not available through timerfd */
	r = clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ts);
	if (r == 0)
		return CLOCK_MONOTONIC;
	usbi_dbg("monotonic clock doesn't work, errno %d", errno);
#endif

	return CLOCK_REALTIME;
}

static int kernel_version_ge(int major, int minor, int sublevel)
{
	struct utsname uts;
	int atoms, kmajor, kminor, ksublevel;

	if (uname(&uts) < 0)
		return -1;
	atoms = sscanf(uts.release, "%d.%d.%d", &kmajor, &kminor, &ksublevel);
	if (atoms < 1)
		return -1;

	if (kmajor > major)
		return 1;
	if (kmajor < major)
		return 0;

	/* kmajor == major */
	if (atoms < 2)
		return 0 == minor && 0 == sublevel;
	if (kminor > minor)
		return 1;
	if (kminor < minor)
		return 0;

	/* kminor == minor */
	if (atoms < 3)
		return 0 == sublevel;

	return ksublevel >= sublevel;
}

/* Return 1 if filename exists inside dirname in sysfs.
   SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH is assumed to be the beginning of the path. */
static int sysfs_has_file(const char *dirname, const char *filename)
{
	struct stat statbuf;
	char path[PATH_MAX];
	int r;

	snprintf(path, PATH_MAX, "%s/%s/%s", SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH, dirname, filename);
	r = stat(path, &statbuf);
	if (r == 0 && S_ISREG(statbuf.st_mode))
		return 1;

	return 0;
}

static int op_init(struct libusb_context *ctx)
{
	struct stat statbuf;
	int r;

	usbfs_path = find_usbfs_path();
	if (!usbfs_path) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "could not find usbfs");
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	if (monotonic_clkid == -1)
		monotonic_clkid = find_monotonic_clock();

	if (supports_flag_bulk_continuation == -1) {
		/* bulk continuation URB flag available from Linux 2.6.32 */
		supports_flag_bulk_continuation = kernel_version_ge(2,6,32);
		if (supports_flag_bulk_continuation == -1) {
			usbi_err(ctx, "error checking for bulk continuation support");
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		}
	}

	if (supports_flag_bulk_continuation)
		usbi_dbg("bulk continuation flag supported");

	if (-1 == supports_flag_zero_packet) {
		/* zero length packet URB flag fixed since Linux 2.6.31 */
		supports_flag_zero_packet = kernel_version_ge(2,6,31);
		if (-1 == supports_flag_zero_packet) {
			usbi_err(ctx, "error checking for zero length packet support");
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		}
	}

	if (supports_flag_zero_packet)
		usbi_dbg("zero length packet flag supported");

	r = stat(SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH, &statbuf);
	if (r == 0 && S_ISDIR(statbuf.st_mode)) {
		DIR *devices = opendir(SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH);
		struct dirent *entry;

		usbi_dbg("found usb devices in sysfs");

		if (!devices) {
			usbi_err(ctx, "opendir devices failed errno=%d", errno);
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		}

		/* Make sure sysfs supports all the required files. If it
		 * does not, then usbfs will be used instead.  Determine
		 * this by looping through the directories in
		 * SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH.  With the assumption that there will
		 * always be subdirectories of the name usbN (usb1, usb2,
		 * etc) representing the root hubs, check the usbN
		 * subdirectories to see if they have all the needed files.
		 * This algorithm uses the usbN subdirectories (root hubs)
		 * because a device disconnection will cause a race
		 * condition regarding which files are available, sometimes
		 * causing an incorrect result.  The root hubs are used
		 * because it is assumed that they will always be present.
		 * See the "sysfs vs usbfs" comment at the top of this file
		 * for more details.  */
		while ((entry = readdir(devices))) {
			int has_busnum=0, has_devnum=0, has_descriptors=0;
			int has_configuration_value=0;

			/* Only check the usbN directories. */
			if (strncmp(entry->d_name, "usb", 3) != 0)
				continue;

			/* Check for the files libusb needs from sysfs. */
			has_busnum = sysfs_has_file(entry->d_name, "busnum");
			has_devnum = sysfs_has_file(entry->d_name, "devnum");
			has_descriptors = sysfs_has_file(entry->d_name, "descriptors");
			has_configuration_value = sysfs_has_file(entry->d_name, "bConfigurationValue");

			if (has_busnum && has_devnum && has_configuration_value)
				sysfs_can_relate_devices = 1;
			if (has_descriptors)
				sysfs_has_descriptors = 1;

			/* Only need to check until we've found ONE device which
			   has all the attributes. */
			if (sysfs_has_descriptors && sysfs_can_relate_devices)
				break;
		}
		closedir(devices);

		/* Only use sysfs descriptors if the rest of
		   sysfs will work for libusb. */
		if (!sysfs_can_relate_devices)
			sysfs_has_descriptors = 0;
	} else {
		usbi_dbg("sysfs usb info not available");
		sysfs_has_descriptors = 0;
		sysfs_can_relate_devices = 0;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int usbfs_get_device_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);

	/* return cached copy */
	memcpy(buffer, priv->dev_descriptor, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH);
	return 0;
}

static int _open_sysfs_attr(struct libusb_device *dev, const char *attr)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);
	char filename[PATH_MAX];
	int fd;

	snprintf(filename, PATH_MAX, "%s/%s/%s",
		SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH, priv->sysfs_dir, attr);
	fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
	if (fd < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev),
			"open %s failed ret=%d errno=%d", filename, fd, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return fd;
}

/* Note only suitable for attributes which always read >= 0, < 0 is error */
static int __read_sysfs_attr(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	const char *devname, const char *attr)
{
	char filename[PATH_MAX];
	FILE *f;
	int r, value;

	snprintf(filename, PATH_MAX, "%s/%s/%s", SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH,
		 devname, attr);
	f = fopen(filename, "r");
	if (f == NULL) {
		if (errno == ENOENT) {
			/* File doesn't exist. Assume the device has been
			   disconnected (see trac ticket #70). */
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
		}
		usbi_err(ctx, "open %s failed errno=%d", filename, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	r = fscanf(f, "%d", &value);
	fclose(f);
	if (r != 1) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "fscanf %s returned %d, errno=%d", attr, r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE; /* For unplug race (trac #70) */
	}
	if (value < 0) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "%s contains a negative value", filename);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return value;
}

static int sysfs_get_device_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer)
{
	int fd;
	ssize_t r;

	/* sysfs provides access to an in-memory copy of the device descriptor,
	 * so we use that rather than keeping our own copy */

	fd = _open_sysfs_attr(dev, "descriptors");
	if (fd < 0)
		return fd;

	r = read(fd, buffer, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH);;
	close(fd);
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "read failed, ret=%d errno=%d", fd, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (r < DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "short read %d/%d", r, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_get_device_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer, int *host_endian)
{
	if (sysfs_has_descriptors) {
		return sysfs_get_device_descriptor(dev, buffer);
	} else {
		*host_endian = 1;
		return usbfs_get_device_descriptor(dev, buffer);
	}
}

static int usbfs_get_active_config_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer, size_t len)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);
	if (!priv->config_descriptor)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND; /* device is unconfigured */

	/* retrieve cached copy */
	memcpy(buffer, priv->config_descriptor, len);
	return 0;
}

/* read the bConfigurationValue for a device */
static int sysfs_get_active_config(struct libusb_device *dev, int *config)
{
	char *endptr;
	char tmp[4] = {0, 0, 0, 0};
	long num;
	int fd;
	ssize_t r;

	fd = _open_sysfs_attr(dev, "bConfigurationValue");
	if (fd < 0)
		return fd;

	r = read(fd, tmp, sizeof(tmp));
	close(fd);
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), 
			"read bConfigurationValue failed ret=%d errno=%d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (r == 0) {
		usbi_dbg("device unconfigured");
		*config = -1;
		return 0;
	}

	if (tmp[sizeof(tmp) - 1] != 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "not null-terminated?");
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (tmp[0] == 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "no configuration value?");
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	num = strtol(tmp, &endptr, 10);
	if (endptr == tmp) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "error converting '%s' to integer", tmp);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	*config = (int) num;
	return 0;
}

/* takes a usbfs/descriptors fd seeked to the start of a configuration, and
 * seeks to the next one. */
static int seek_to_next_config(struct libusb_context *ctx, int fd,
	int host_endian)
{
	struct libusb_config_descriptor config;
	unsigned char tmp[6];
	off_t off;
	ssize_t r;

	/* read first 6 bytes of descriptor */
	r = read(fd, tmp, sizeof(tmp));
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "read failed ret=%d errno=%d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (r < sizeof(tmp)) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "short descriptor read %d/%d", r, sizeof(tmp));
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	/* seek forward to end of config */
	usbi_parse_descriptor(tmp, "bbwbb", &config, host_endian);
	off = lseek(fd, config.wTotalLength - sizeof(tmp), SEEK_CUR);
	if (off < 0) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "seek failed ret=%d errno=%d", off, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int sysfs_get_active_config_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer, size_t len)
{
	int fd;
	ssize_t r;
	off_t off;
	int to_copy;
	int config;
	unsigned char tmp[6];

	r = sysfs_get_active_config(dev, &config);
	if (r < 0)
		return r;
	if (config == -1)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;

	usbi_dbg("active configuration %d", config);

	/* sysfs provides access to an in-memory copy of the device descriptor,
	 * so we use that rather than keeping our own copy */

	fd = _open_sysfs_attr(dev, "descriptors");
	if (fd < 0)
		return fd;

	/* device might have been unconfigured since we read bConfigurationValue,
	 * so first check that there is any config descriptor data at all... */
	off = lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_END);
	if (off < 1) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "end seek failed, ret=%d errno=%d",
			off, errno);
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (off == DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH) {
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
	}

	off = lseek(fd, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH, SEEK_SET);
	if (off < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "seek failed, ret=%d errno=%d", off, errno);
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	/* unbounded loop: we expect the descriptor to be present under all
	 * circumstances */
	while (1) {
		r = read(fd, tmp, sizeof(tmp));
		if (r < 0) {
			usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "read failed, ret=%d errno=%d",
				fd, errno);
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		} else if (r < sizeof(tmp)) {
			usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "short read %d/%d", r, sizeof(tmp));
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		}

		/* check bConfigurationValue */
		if (tmp[5] == config)
			break;

		/* try the next descriptor */
		off = lseek(fd, 0 - sizeof(tmp), SEEK_CUR);
		if (off < 0)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;

		r = seek_to_next_config(DEVICE_CTX(dev), fd, 0);
		if (r < 0)
			return r;
	}

	to_copy = (len < sizeof(tmp)) ? len : sizeof(tmp);
	memcpy(buffer, tmp, to_copy);
	if (len > sizeof(tmp)) {
		r = read(fd, buffer + sizeof(tmp), len - sizeof(tmp));
		if (r < 0) {
			usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "read failed, ret=%d errno=%d",
				fd, errno);
			r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		} else if (r == 0) {
			usbi_dbg("device is unconfigured");
			r = LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		} else if (r < len - sizeof(tmp)) {
			usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "short read %d/%d", r, len);
			r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		}
	} else {
		r = 0;
	}

	close(fd);
	return r;
}

static int op_get_active_config_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	unsigned char *buffer, size_t len, int *host_endian)
{
	if (sysfs_has_descriptors) {
		return sysfs_get_active_config_descriptor(dev, buffer, len);
	} else {
		return usbfs_get_active_config_descriptor(dev, buffer, len);
	}
}

/* takes a usbfs fd, attempts to find the requested config and copy a certain
 * amount of it into an output buffer. */
static int get_config_descriptor(struct libusb_context *ctx, int fd,
	uint8_t config_index, unsigned char *buffer, size_t len)
{
	off_t off;
	ssize_t r;

	off = lseek(fd, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH, SEEK_SET);
	if (off < 0) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "seek failed ret=%d errno=%d", off, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	/* might need to skip some configuration descriptors to reach the
	 * requested configuration */
	while (config_index > 0) {
		r = seek_to_next_config(ctx, fd, 1);
		if (r < 0)
			return r;
		config_index--;
	}

	/* read the rest of the descriptor */
	r = read(fd, buffer, len);
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "read failed ret=%d errno=%d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (r < len) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "short output read %d/%d", r, len);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_get_config_descriptor(struct libusb_device *dev,
	uint8_t config_index, unsigned char *buffer, size_t len, int *host_endian)
{
	char filename[PATH_MAX];
	int fd;
	int r;

	/* always read from usbfs: sysfs only has the active descriptor
	 * this will involve waking the device up, but oh well! */

	/* FIXME: the above is no longer true, new kernels have all descriptors
	 * in the descriptors file. but its kinda hard to detect if the kernel
	 * is sufficiently new. */

	_get_usbfs_path(dev, filename);
	fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
	if (fd < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev),
			"open '%s' failed, ret=%d errno=%d", filename, fd, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	r = get_config_descriptor(DEVICE_CTX(dev), fd, config_index, buffer, len);
	close(fd);
	return r;
}

/* cache the active config descriptor in memory. a value of -1 means that
 * we aren't sure which one is active, so just assume the first one. 
 * only for usbfs. */
static int cache_active_config(struct libusb_device *dev, int fd,
	int active_config)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);
	struct libusb_config_descriptor config;
	unsigned char tmp[8];
	unsigned char *buf;
	int idx;
	int r;

	if (active_config == -1) {
		idx = 0;
	} else {
		r = usbi_get_config_index_by_value(dev, active_config, &idx);
		if (r < 0)
			return r;
		if (idx == -1)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
	}

	r = get_config_descriptor(DEVICE_CTX(dev), fd, idx, tmp, sizeof(tmp));
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "first read error %d", r);
		return r;
	}

	usbi_parse_descriptor(tmp, "bbw", &config, 0);
	buf = malloc(config.wTotalLength);
	if (!buf)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;

	r = get_config_descriptor(DEVICE_CTX(dev), fd, idx, buf,
		config.wTotalLength);
	if (r < 0) {
		free(buf);
		return r;
	}

	if (priv->config_descriptor)
		free(priv->config_descriptor);
	priv->config_descriptor = buf;
	return 0;
}

/* send a control message to retrieve active configuration */
static int usbfs_get_active_config(struct libusb_device *dev, int fd)
{
	unsigned char active_config = 0;
	int r;

	struct usbfs_ctrltransfer ctrl = {
		.bmRequestType = LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_IN,
		.bRequest = LIBUSB_REQUEST_GET_CONFIGURATION,
		.wValue = 0,
		.wIndex = 0,
		.wLength = 1,
		.timeout = 1000,
		.data = &active_config
	};

	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_CONTROL, &ctrl);
	if (r < 0) {
		if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		/* we hit this error path frequently with buggy devices :( */
		usbi_warn(DEVICE_CTX(dev),
			"get_configuration failed ret=%d errno=%d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	return active_config;
}

static int initialize_device(struct libusb_device *dev, uint8_t busnum,
	uint8_t devaddr, const char *sysfs_dir)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);
	unsigned char *dev_buf;
	char path[PATH_MAX];
	int fd, speed;
	int active_config = 0;
	int device_configured = 1;
	ssize_t r;

	dev->bus_number = busnum;
	dev->device_address = devaddr;

	if (sysfs_dir) {
		priv->sysfs_dir = malloc(strlen(sysfs_dir) + 1);
		if (!priv->sysfs_dir)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
		strcpy(priv->sysfs_dir, sysfs_dir);

		/* Note speed can contain 1.5, in this case __read_sysfs_attr
		   will stop parsing at the '.' and return 1 */
		speed = __read_sysfs_attr(DEVICE_CTX(dev), sysfs_dir, "speed");
		if (speed >= 0) {
			switch (speed) {
			case     1: dev->speed = LIBUSB_SPEED_LOW; break;
			case    12: dev->speed = LIBUSB_SPEED_FULL; break;
			case   480: dev->speed = LIBUSB_SPEED_HIGH; break;
			case  5000: dev->speed = LIBUSB_SPEED_SUPER; break;
			default:
				usbi_warn(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "Unknown device speed: %d Mbps", speed);
			}
		}
	}

	if (sysfs_has_descriptors)
		return 0;

	/* cache device descriptor in memory so that we can retrieve it later
	 * without waking the device up (op_get_device_descriptor) */

	priv->dev_descriptor = NULL;
	priv->config_descriptor = NULL;

	if (sysfs_can_relate_devices) {
		int tmp = sysfs_get_active_config(dev, &active_config);
		if (tmp < 0)
			return tmp;
		if (active_config == -1)
			device_configured = 0;
	}

	_get_usbfs_path(dev, path);
	fd = open(path, O_RDWR);
	if (fd < 0 && errno == EACCES) {
		fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
		/* if we only have read-only access to the device, we cannot
		 * send a control message to determine the active config. just
		 * assume the first one is active. */
		active_config = -1;
	}

	if (fd < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "open failed, ret=%d errno=%d", fd, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	if (!sysfs_can_relate_devices) {
		if (active_config == -1) {
			/* if we only have read-only access to the device, we cannot
			 * send a control message to determine the active config. just
			 * assume the first one is active. */
			usbi_warn(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "access to %s is read-only; cannot "
				"determine active configuration descriptor", path);
		} else {
			active_config = usbfs_get_active_config(dev, fd);
			if (active_config == LIBUSB_ERROR_IO) {
				/* buggy devices sometimes fail to report their active config.
				 * assume unconfigured and continue the probing */
				usbi_warn(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "couldn't query active "
					"configuration, assumung unconfigured");
				device_configured = 0;
			} else if (active_config < 0) {
				close(fd);
				return active_config;
			} else if (active_config == 0) {
				/* some buggy devices have a configuration 0, but we're
				 * reaching into the corner of a corner case here, so let's
				 * not support buggy devices in these circumstances.
				 * stick to the specs: a configuration value of 0 means
				 * unconfigured. */
				usbi_dbg("active cfg 0? assuming unconfigured device");
				device_configured = 0;
			}
		}
	}

	dev_buf = malloc(DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH);
	if (!dev_buf) {
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
	}

	r = read(fd, dev_buf, DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH);
	if (r < 0) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev),
			"read descriptor failed ret=%d errno=%d", fd, errno);
		free(dev_buf);
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	} else if (r < DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH) {
		usbi_err(DEVICE_CTX(dev), "short descriptor read (%d)", r);
		free(dev_buf);
		close(fd);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	/* bit of a hack: set num_configurations now because cache_active_config()
	 * calls usbi_get_config_index_by_value() which uses it */
	dev->num_configurations = dev_buf[DEVICE_DESC_LENGTH - 1];

	if (device_configured) {
		r = cache_active_config(dev, fd, active_config);
		if (r < 0) {
			close(fd);
			free(dev_buf);
			return r;
		}
	}

	close(fd);
	priv->dev_descriptor = dev_buf;
	return 0;
}

static int enumerate_device(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs, uint8_t busnum, uint8_t devaddr,
	const char *sysfs_dir)
{
	struct discovered_devs *discdevs;
	unsigned long session_id;
	int need_unref = 0;
	struct libusb_device *dev;
	int r = 0;

	/* FIXME: session ID is not guaranteed unique as addresses can wrap and
	 * will be reused. instead we should add a simple sysfs attribute with
	 * a session ID. */
	session_id = busnum << 8 | devaddr;
	usbi_dbg("busnum %d devaddr %d session_id %ld", busnum, devaddr,
		session_id);

	dev = usbi_get_device_by_session_id(ctx, session_id);
	if (dev) {
		usbi_dbg("using existing device for %d/%d (session %ld)",
			busnum, devaddr, session_id);
	} else {
		usbi_dbg("allocating new device for %d/%d (session %ld)",
			busnum, devaddr, session_id);
		dev = usbi_alloc_device(ctx, session_id);
		if (!dev)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
		need_unref = 1;
		r = initialize_device(dev, busnum, devaddr, sysfs_dir);
		if (r < 0)
			goto out;
		r = usbi_sanitize_device(dev);
		if (r < 0)
			goto out;
	}

	discdevs = discovered_devs_append(*_discdevs, dev);
	if (!discdevs)
		r = LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
	else
		*_discdevs = discdevs;

out:
	if (need_unref)
		libusb_unref_device(dev);
	return r;
}

/* open a bus directory and adds all discovered devices to discdevs. on
 * failure (non-zero return) the pre-existing discdevs should be destroyed
 * (and devices freed). on success, the new discdevs pointer should be used
 * as it may have been moved. */
static int usbfs_scan_busdir(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs, uint8_t busnum)
{
	DIR *dir;
	char dirpath[PATH_MAX];
	struct dirent *entry;
	struct discovered_devs *discdevs = *_discdevs;
	int r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;

	snprintf(dirpath, PATH_MAX, "%s/%03d", usbfs_path, busnum);
	usbi_dbg("%s", dirpath);
	dir = opendir(dirpath);
	if (!dir) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "opendir '%s' failed, errno=%d", dirpath, errno);
		/* FIXME: should handle valid race conditions like hub unplugged
		 * during directory iteration - this is not an error */
		return r;
	}

	while ((entry = readdir(dir))) {
		int devaddr;

		if (entry->d_name[0] == '.')
			continue;

		devaddr = atoi(entry->d_name);
		if (devaddr == 0) {
			usbi_dbg("unknown dir entry %s", entry->d_name);
			continue;
		}

		if (enumerate_device(ctx, &discdevs, busnum, (uint8_t) devaddr, NULL)) {
			usbi_dbg("failed to enumerate dir entry %s", entry->d_name);
			continue;
		}

		r = 0;
	}

	if (!r)
		*_discdevs = discdevs;
	closedir(dir);
	return r;
}

static int usbfs_get_device_list(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs)
{
	struct dirent *entry;
	DIR *buses = opendir(usbfs_path);
	struct discovered_devs *discdevs = *_discdevs;
	int r = 0;

	if (!buses) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "opendir buses failed errno=%d", errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	while ((entry = readdir(buses))) {
		struct discovered_devs *discdevs_new = discdevs;
		int busnum;

		if (entry->d_name[0] == '.')
			continue;

		if (usbdev_names) {
			int devaddr;
			if (!_is_usbdev_entry(entry, &busnum, &devaddr))
				continue;

			r = enumerate_device(ctx, &discdevs_new, busnum,
				(uint8_t) devaddr, NULL);
			if (r < 0) {
				usbi_dbg("failed to enumerate dir entry %s", entry->d_name);
				continue;
			}
		} else {
			busnum = atoi(entry->d_name);
			if (busnum == 0) {
				usbi_dbg("unknown dir entry %s", entry->d_name);
				continue;
			}

			r = usbfs_scan_busdir(ctx, &discdevs_new, busnum);
			if (r < 0)
				goto out;
		}
		discdevs = discdevs_new;
	}

out:
	closedir(buses);
	*_discdevs = discdevs;
	return r;

}

static int sysfs_scan_device(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs, const char *devname)
{
	int busnum;
	int devaddr;

	usbi_dbg("scan %s", devname);

	busnum = __read_sysfs_attr(ctx, devname, "busnum");
	if (busnum < 0)
		return busnum;

	devaddr = __read_sysfs_attr(ctx, devname, "devnum");
	if (devaddr < 0)
		return devaddr;

	usbi_dbg("bus=%d dev=%d", busnum, devaddr);
	if (busnum > 255 || devaddr > 255)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;

	return enumerate_device(ctx, _discdevs, busnum & 0xff, devaddr & 0xff,
		devname);
}

static int sysfs_get_device_list(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs)
{
	struct discovered_devs *discdevs = *_discdevs;
	DIR *devices = opendir(SYSFS_DEVICE_PATH);
	struct dirent *entry;
	int r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;

	if (!devices) {
		usbi_err(ctx, "opendir devices failed errno=%d", errno);
		return r;
	}

	while ((entry = readdir(devices))) {
		struct discovered_devs *discdevs_new = discdevs;

		if ((!isdigit(entry->d_name[0]) && strncmp(entry->d_name, "usb", 3))
				|| strchr(entry->d_name, ':'))
			continue;

		if (sysfs_scan_device(ctx, &discdevs_new, entry->d_name)) {
			usbi_dbg("failed to enumerate dir entry %s", entry->d_name);
			continue;
		}

		r = 0;
		discdevs = discdevs_new;
	}

	if (!r)
		*_discdevs = discdevs;
	closedir(devices);
	return r;
}

static int op_get_device_list(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct discovered_devs **_discdevs)
{
	/* we can retrieve device list and descriptors from sysfs or usbfs.
	 * sysfs is preferable, because if we use usbfs we end up resuming
	 * any autosuspended USB devices. however, sysfs is not available
	 * everywhere, so we need a usbfs fallback too.
	 *
	 * as described in the "sysfs vs usbfs" comment at the top of this
	 * file, sometimes we have sysfs but not enough information to
	 * relate sysfs devices to usbfs nodes.  op_init() determines the
	 * adequacy of sysfs and sets sysfs_can_relate_devices.
	 */
	if (sysfs_can_relate_devices != 0)
		return sysfs_get_device_list(ctx, _discdevs);
	else
		return usbfs_get_device_list(ctx, _discdevs);
}

static int op_open(struct libusb_device_handle *handle)
{
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *hpriv = _device_handle_priv(handle);
	char filename[PATH_MAX];

	_get_usbfs_path(handle->dev, filename);
	usbi_dbg("opening %s", filename);
	hpriv->fd = open(filename, O_RDWR);
	if (hpriv->fd < 0) {
		if (errno == EACCES) {
			usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "libusb couldn't open USB device %s: "
				"Permission denied.", filename);
			usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
				"libusb requires write access to USB device nodes.");
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_ACCESS;
		} else if (errno == ENOENT) {
			usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "libusb couldn't open USB device %s: "
				"No such file or directory.", filename);
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
		} else {
			usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
				"open failed, code %d errno %d", hpriv->fd, errno);
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
		}
	}

	return usbi_add_pollfd(HANDLE_CTX(handle), hpriv->fd, POLLOUT);
}

static void op_close(struct libusb_device_handle *dev_handle)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(dev_handle)->fd;
	usbi_remove_pollfd(HANDLE_CTX(dev_handle), fd);
	close(fd);
}

static int op_get_configuration(struct libusb_device_handle *handle,
	int *config)
{
	int r;
	if (sysfs_can_relate_devices != 1)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED;

	r = sysfs_get_active_config(handle->dev, config);
	if (r < 0)
		return r;

	if (*config == -1) {
		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "device unconfigured");
		*config = 0;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_set_configuration(struct libusb_device_handle *handle, int config)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(handle->dev);
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	int r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_SETCONFIG, &config);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == EINVAL)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == EBUSY)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "failed, error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	if (!sysfs_has_descriptors) {
		/* update our cached active config descriptor */
		if (config == -1) {
			if (priv->config_descriptor) {
				free(priv->config_descriptor);
				priv->config_descriptor = NULL;
			}
		} else {
			r = cache_active_config(handle->dev, fd, config);
			if (r < 0)
				usbi_warn(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
					"failed to update cached config descriptor, error %d", r);
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_claim_interface(struct libusb_device_handle *handle, int iface)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	int r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_CLAIMINTF, &iface);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENOENT)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == EBUSY)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"claim interface failed, error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}
	return 0;
}

static int op_release_interface(struct libusb_device_handle *handle, int iface)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	int r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_RELEASEINTF, &iface);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"release interface failed, error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}
	return 0;
}

static int op_set_interface(struct libusb_device_handle *handle, int iface,
	int altsetting)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	struct usbfs_setinterface setintf;
	int r;

	setintf.interface = iface;
	setintf.altsetting = altsetting;
	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_SETINTF, &setintf);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == EINVAL)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"setintf failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_clear_halt(struct libusb_device_handle *handle,
	unsigned char endpoint)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	unsigned int _endpoint = endpoint;
	int r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_CLEAR_HALT, &_endpoint);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENOENT)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"clear_halt failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_reset_device(struct libusb_device_handle *handle)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	int i, r, ret = 0;

	/* Doing a device reset will cause the usbfs driver to get unbound
	   from any interfaces it is bound to. By voluntarily unbinding
	   the usbfs driver ourself, we stop the kernel from rebinding
	   the interface after reset (which would end up with the interface
	   getting bound to the in kernel driver if any). */
	for (i = 0; i < USB_MAXINTERFACES; i++) {
		if (handle->claimed_interfaces & (1L << i)) {
			op_release_interface(handle, i);
		}
	}

	usbi_mutex_lock(&handle->lock);
	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_RESET, NULL);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENODEV) {
			ret = LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
			goto out;
		}

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"reset failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		ret = LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		goto out;
	}

	/* And re-claim any interfaces which were claimed before the reset */
	for (i = 0; i < USB_MAXINTERFACES; i++) {
		if (handle->claimed_interfaces & (1L << i)) {
			r = op_claim_interface(handle, i);
			if (r) {
				usbi_warn(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
					"failed to re-claim interface %d after reset", i);
				handle->claimed_interfaces &= ~(1L << i);
			}
		}
	}
out:
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&handle->lock);
	return ret;
}

static int op_kernel_driver_active(struct libusb_device_handle *handle,
	int interface)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	struct usbfs_getdriver getdrv;
	int r;

	getdrv.interface = interface;
	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_GETDRIVER, &getdrv);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENODATA)
			return 0;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"get driver failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	return 1;
}

static int op_detach_kernel_driver(struct libusb_device_handle *handle,
	int interface)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	struct usbfs_ioctl command;
	int r;

	command.ifno = interface;
	command.ioctl_code = IOCTL_USBFS_DISCONNECT;
	command.data = NULL;

	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_IOCTL, &command);
	if (r) {
		if (errno == ENODATA)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == EINVAL)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"detach failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}

	return 0;
}

static int op_attach_kernel_driver(struct libusb_device_handle *handle,
	int interface)
{
	int fd = _device_handle_priv(handle)->fd;
	struct usbfs_ioctl command;
	int r;

	command.ifno = interface;
	command.ioctl_code = IOCTL_USBFS_CONNECT;
	command.data = NULL;

	r = ioctl(fd, IOCTL_USBFS_IOCTL, &command);
	if (r < 0) {
		if (errno == ENODATA)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		else if (errno == EINVAL)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;
		else if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
		else if (errno == EBUSY)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle),
			"attach failed error %d errno %d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	} else if (r == 0) {
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
	}

	return 0;
}

static void op_destroy_device(struct libusb_device *dev)
{
	struct linux_device_priv *priv = _device_priv(dev);
	if (!sysfs_has_descriptors) {
		if (priv->dev_descriptor)
			free(priv->dev_descriptor);
		if (priv->config_descriptor)
			free(priv->config_descriptor);
	}
	if (priv->sysfs_dir)
		free(priv->sysfs_dir);
}

/* URBs are discarded in reverse order of submission to avoid races. */
static int discard_urbs(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer, int first, int last_plus_one)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv =
		usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *dpriv =
		_device_handle_priv(transfer->dev_handle);
	int i, ret = 0;
	struct usbfs_urb *urb;

	for (i = last_plus_one - 1; i >= first; i--) {
		if (LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_ISOCHRONOUS == transfer->type)
			urb = tpriv->iso_urbs[i];
		else
			urb = &tpriv->urbs[i];

		if (0 == ioctl(dpriv->fd, IOCTL_USBFS_DISCARDURB, urb))
			continue;

		if (EINVAL == errno) {
			usbi_dbg("URB not found --> assuming ready to be reaped");
			if (i == (last_plus_one - 1))
				ret = LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
		} else if (ENODEV == errno) {
			usbi_dbg("Device not found for URB --> assuming ready to be reaped");
			ret = LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
		} else {
			usbi_warn(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
				"unrecognised discard errno %d", errno);
			ret = LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
		}
	}
	return ret;
}

static void free_iso_urbs(struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv)
{
	int i;
	for (i = 0; i < tpriv->num_urbs; i++) {
		struct usbfs_urb *urb = tpriv->iso_urbs[i];
		if (!urb)
			break;
		free(urb);
	}

	free(tpriv->iso_urbs);
	tpriv->iso_urbs = NULL;
}

static int submit_bulk_transfer(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer,
	unsigned char urb_type)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *dpriv =
		_device_handle_priv(transfer->dev_handle);
	struct usbfs_urb *urbs;
	int is_out = (transfer->endpoint & LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_DIR_MASK)
		== LIBUSB_ENDPOINT_OUT;
	int r;
	int i;
	size_t alloc_size;

	if (tpriv->urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;

	if (is_out && transfer->flags & LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ADD_ZERO_PACKET &&
	    !supports_flag_zero_packet)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED;

	/* usbfs places a 16kb limit on bulk URBs. we divide up larger requests
	 * into smaller units to meet such restriction, then fire off all the
	 * units at once. it would be simpler if we just fired one unit at a time,
	 * but there is a big performance gain through doing it this way. */
	int num_urbs = transfer->length / MAX_BULK_BUFFER_LENGTH;
	int last_urb_partial = 0;

	if (transfer->length == 0) {
		num_urbs = 1;
	} else if ((transfer->length % MAX_BULK_BUFFER_LENGTH) > 0) {
		last_urb_partial = 1;
		num_urbs++;
	}
	usbi_dbg("need %d urbs for new transfer with length %d", num_urbs,
		transfer->length);
	alloc_size = num_urbs * sizeof(struct usbfs_urb);
	urbs = malloc(alloc_size);
	if (!urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
	memset(urbs, 0, alloc_size);
	tpriv->urbs = urbs;
	tpriv->num_urbs = num_urbs;
	tpriv->num_retired = 0;
	tpriv->reap_action = NORMAL;
	tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED;

	for (i = 0; i < num_urbs; i++) {
		struct usbfs_urb *urb = &urbs[i];
		urb->usercontext = itransfer;
		urb->type = urb_type;
		urb->endpoint = transfer->endpoint;
		urb->buffer = transfer->buffer + (i * MAX_BULK_BUFFER_LENGTH);
		if (supports_flag_bulk_continuation && !is_out)
			urb->flags = USBFS_URB_SHORT_NOT_OK;
		if (i == num_urbs - 1 && last_urb_partial)
			urb->buffer_length = transfer->length % MAX_BULK_BUFFER_LENGTH;
		else if (transfer->length == 0)
			urb->buffer_length = 0;
		else
			urb->buffer_length = MAX_BULK_BUFFER_LENGTH;

		if (i > 0 && supports_flag_bulk_continuation)
			urb->flags |= USBFS_URB_BULK_CONTINUATION;

		/* we have already checked that the flag is supported */
		if (is_out && i == num_urbs - 1 &&
		    transfer->flags & LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ADD_ZERO_PACKET)
			urb->flags |= USBFS_URB_ZERO_PACKET;

		r = ioctl(dpriv->fd, IOCTL_USBFS_SUBMITURB, urb);
		if (r < 0) {
			if (errno == ENODEV) {
				r = LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
			} else {
				usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
					"submiturb failed error %d errno=%d", r, errno);
				r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
			}
	
			/* if the first URB submission fails, we can simply free up and
			 * return failure immediately. */
			if (i == 0) {
				usbi_dbg("first URB failed, easy peasy");
				free(urbs);
				tpriv->urbs = NULL;
				return r;
			}

			/* if it's not the first URB that failed, the situation is a bit
			 * tricky. we may need to discard all previous URBs. there are
			 * complications:
			 *  - discarding is asynchronous - discarded urbs will be reaped
			 *    later. the user must not have freed the transfer when the
			 *    discarded URBs are reaped, otherwise libusb will be using
			 *    freed memory.
			 *  - the earlier URBs may have completed successfully and we do
			 *    not want to throw away any data.
			 *  - this URB failing may be no error; EREMOTEIO means that
			 *    this transfer simply didn't need all the URBs we submitted
			 * so, we report that the transfer was submitted successfully and
			 * in case of error we discard all previous URBs. later when
			 * the final reap completes we can report error to the user,
			 * or success if an earlier URB was completed successfully.
			 */
			tpriv->reap_action = EREMOTEIO == errno ? COMPLETED_EARLY : SUBMIT_FAILED;

			/* The URBs we haven't submitted yet we count as already
			 * retired. */
			tpriv->num_retired += num_urbs - i;

			/* If we completed short then don't try to discard. */
			if (COMPLETED_EARLY == tpriv->reap_action)
				return 0;

			discard_urbs(itransfer, 0, i);

			usbi_dbg("reporting successful submission but waiting for %d "
				"discards before reporting error", i);
			return 0;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

static int submit_iso_transfer(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *dpriv =
		_device_handle_priv(transfer->dev_handle);
	struct usbfs_urb **urbs;
	size_t alloc_size;
	int num_packets = transfer->num_iso_packets;
	int i;
	int this_urb_len = 0;
	int num_urbs = 1;
	int packet_offset = 0;
	unsigned int packet_len;
	unsigned char *urb_buffer = transfer->buffer;

	if (tpriv->iso_urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;

	/* usbfs places a 32kb limit on iso URBs. we divide up larger requests
	 * into smaller units to meet such restriction, then fire off all the
	 * units at once. it would be simpler if we just fired one unit at a time,
	 * but there is a big performance gain through doing it this way. */

	/* calculate how many URBs we need */
	for (i = 0; i < num_packets; i++) {
		int space_remaining = MAX_ISO_BUFFER_LENGTH - this_urb_len;
		packet_len = transfer->iso_packet_desc[i].length;

		if (packet_len > space_remaining) {
			num_urbs++;
			this_urb_len = packet_len;
		} else {
			this_urb_len += packet_len;
		}
	}
	usbi_dbg("need %d 32k URBs for transfer", num_urbs);

	alloc_size = num_urbs * sizeof(*urbs);
	urbs = malloc(alloc_size);
	if (!urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
	memset(urbs, 0, alloc_size);

	tpriv->iso_urbs = urbs;
	tpriv->num_urbs = num_urbs;
	tpriv->num_retired = 0;
	tpriv->reap_action = NORMAL;
	tpriv->iso_packet_offset = 0;

	/* allocate + initialize each URB with the correct number of packets */
	for (i = 0; i < num_urbs; i++) {
		struct usbfs_urb *urb;
		int space_remaining_in_urb = MAX_ISO_BUFFER_LENGTH;
		int urb_packet_offset = 0;
		unsigned char *urb_buffer_orig = urb_buffer;
		int j;
		int k;

		/* swallow up all the packets we can fit into this URB */
		while (packet_offset < transfer->num_iso_packets) {
			packet_len = transfer->iso_packet_desc[packet_offset].length;
			if (packet_len <= space_remaining_in_urb) {
				/* throw it in */
				urb_packet_offset++;
				packet_offset++;
				space_remaining_in_urb -= packet_len;
				urb_buffer += packet_len;
			} else {
				/* it can't fit, save it for the next URB */
				break;
			}
		}

		alloc_size = sizeof(*urb)
			+ (urb_packet_offset * sizeof(struct usbfs_iso_packet_desc));
		urb = malloc(alloc_size);
		if (!urb) {
			free_iso_urbs(tpriv);
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
		}
		memset(urb, 0, alloc_size);
		urbs[i] = urb;

		/* populate packet lengths */
		for (j = 0, k = packet_offset - urb_packet_offset;
				k < packet_offset; k++, j++) {
			packet_len = transfer->iso_packet_desc[k].length;
			urb->iso_frame_desc[j].length = packet_len;
		}

		urb->usercontext = itransfer;
		urb->type = USBFS_URB_TYPE_ISO;
		/* FIXME: interface for non-ASAP data? */
		urb->flags = USBFS_URB_ISO_ASAP;
		urb->endpoint = transfer->endpoint;
		urb->number_of_packets = urb_packet_offset;
		urb->buffer = urb_buffer_orig;
	}

	/* submit URBs */
	for (i = 0; i < num_urbs; i++) {
		int r = ioctl(dpriv->fd, IOCTL_USBFS_SUBMITURB, urbs[i]);
		if (r < 0) {
			if (errno == ENODEV) {
				r = LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;
			} else {
				usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
					"submiturb failed error %d errno=%d", r, errno);
				r = LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
			}

			/* if the first URB submission fails, we can simply free up and
			 * return failure immediately. */
			if (i == 0) {
				usbi_dbg("first URB failed, easy peasy");
				free_iso_urbs(tpriv);
				return r;
			}

			/* if it's not the first URB that failed, the situation is a bit
			 * tricky. we must discard all previous URBs. there are
			 * complications:
			 *  - discarding is asynchronous - discarded urbs will be reaped
			 *    later. the user must not have freed the transfer when the
			 *    discarded URBs are reaped, otherwise libusb will be using
			 *    freed memory.
			 *  - the earlier URBs may have completed successfully and we do
			 *    not want to throw away any data.
			 * so, in this case we discard all the previous URBs BUT we report
			 * that the transfer was submitted successfully. then later when
			 * the final discard completes we can report error to the user.
			 */
			tpriv->reap_action = SUBMIT_FAILED;

			/* The URBs we haven't submitted yet we count as already
			 * retired. */
			tpriv->num_retired = num_urbs - i;
			discard_urbs(itransfer, 0, i);

			usbi_dbg("reporting successful submission but waiting for %d "
				"discards before reporting error", i);
			return 0;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

static int submit_control_transfer(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer)
{
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *dpriv =
		_device_handle_priv(transfer->dev_handle);
	struct usbfs_urb *urb;
	int r;

	if (tpriv->urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_BUSY;

	if (transfer->length - LIBUSB_CONTROL_SETUP_SIZE > MAX_CTRL_BUFFER_LENGTH)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;

	urb = malloc(sizeof(struct usbfs_urb));
	if (!urb)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_MEM;
	memset(urb, 0, sizeof(struct usbfs_urb));
	tpriv->urbs = urb;
	tpriv->num_urbs = 1;
	tpriv->reap_action = NORMAL;

	urb->usercontext = itransfer;
	urb->type = USBFS_URB_TYPE_CONTROL;
	urb->endpoint = transfer->endpoint;
	urb->buffer = transfer->buffer;
	urb->buffer_length = transfer->length;

	r = ioctl(dpriv->fd, IOCTL_USBFS_SUBMITURB, urb);
	if (r < 0) {
		free(urb);
		tpriv->urbs = NULL;
		if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
			"submiturb failed error %d errno=%d", r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}
	return 0;
}

static int op_submit_transfer(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);

	switch (transfer->type) {
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_CONTROL:
		return submit_control_transfer(itransfer);
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_BULK:
		return submit_bulk_transfer(itransfer, USBFS_URB_TYPE_BULK);
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_INTERRUPT:
		return submit_bulk_transfer(itransfer, USBFS_URB_TYPE_INTERRUPT);
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_ISOCHRONOUS:
		return submit_iso_transfer(itransfer);
	default:
		usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
			"unknown endpoint type %d", transfer->type);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;
	}
}

static int op_cancel_transfer(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer)
{
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);

	switch (transfer->type) {
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_BULK:
		if (tpriv->reap_action == ERROR)
			break;
		/* else, fall through */
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_CONTROL:
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_INTERRUPT:
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_ISOCHRONOUS:
		tpriv->reap_action = CANCELLED;
		break;
	default:
		usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
			"unknown endpoint type %d", transfer->type);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;
	}

	if (!tpriv->urbs)
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;

	return discard_urbs(itransfer, 0, tpriv->num_urbs);
}

static void op_clear_transfer_priv(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);

	/* urbs can be freed also in submit_transfer so lock mutex first */
	switch (transfer->type) {
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_CONTROL:
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_BULK:
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_INTERRUPT:
		usbi_mutex_lock(&itransfer->lock);
		if (tpriv->urbs)
			free(tpriv->urbs);
		tpriv->urbs = NULL;
		usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
		break;
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_ISOCHRONOUS:
		usbi_mutex_lock(&itransfer->lock);
		if (tpriv->iso_urbs)
			free_iso_urbs(tpriv);
		usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
		break;
	default:
		usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
			"unknown endpoint type %d", transfer->type);
	}
}

static int handle_bulk_completion(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer,
	struct usbfs_urb *urb)
{
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer = USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	int urb_idx = urb - tpriv->urbs;

	usbi_mutex_lock(&itransfer->lock);
	usbi_dbg("handling completion status %d of bulk urb %d/%d", urb->status,
		urb_idx + 1, tpriv->num_urbs);

	tpriv->num_retired++;

	if (tpriv->reap_action != NORMAL) {
		/* cancelled, submit_fail, or completed early */
		usbi_dbg("abnormal reap: urb status %d", urb->status);

		/* even though we're in the process of cancelling, it's possible that
		 * we may receive some data in these URBs that we don't want to lose.
		 * examples:
		 * 1. while the kernel is cancelling all the packets that make up an
		 *    URB, a few of them might complete. so we get back a successful
		 *    cancellation *and* some data.
		 * 2. we receive a short URB which marks the early completion condition,
		 *    so we start cancelling the remaining URBs. however, we're too
		 *    slow and another URB completes (or at least completes partially).
		 *    (this can't happen since we always use BULK_CONTINUATION.)
		 *
		 * When this happens, our objectives are not to lose any "surplus" data,
		 * and also to stick it at the end of the previously-received data
		 * (closing any holes), so that libusb reports the total amount of
		 * transferred data and presents it in a contiguous chunk.
		 */
		if (urb->actual_length > 0) {
			unsigned char *target = transfer->buffer + itransfer->transferred;
			usbi_dbg("received %d bytes of surplus data", urb->actual_length);
			if (urb->buffer != target) {
				usbi_dbg("moving surplus data from offset %d to offset %d",
					(unsigned char *) urb->buffer - transfer->buffer,
					target - transfer->buffer);
				memmove(target, urb->buffer, urb->actual_length);
			}
			itransfer->transferred += urb->actual_length;
		}

		if (tpriv->num_retired == tpriv->num_urbs) {
			usbi_dbg("abnormal reap: last URB handled, reporting");
			if (tpriv->reap_action != COMPLETED_EARLY &&
			    tpriv->reap_status == LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED)
				tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
			goto completed;
		}
		goto out_unlock;
	}

	itransfer->transferred += urb->actual_length;

	/* Many of these errors can occur on *any* urb of a multi-urb
	 * transfer.  When they do, we tear down the rest of the transfer.
	 */
	switch (urb->status) {
	case 0:
		break;
	case -EREMOTEIO: /* short transfer */
		break;
	case -ENOENT: /* cancelled */
	case -ECONNRESET:
		break;
	case -ENODEV:
	case -ESHUTDOWN:
		usbi_dbg("device removed");
		tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_NO_DEVICE;
		goto cancel_remaining;
	case -EPIPE:
		usbi_dbg("detected endpoint stall");
		if (tpriv->reap_status == LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED)
			tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_STALL;
		goto cancel_remaining;
	case -EOVERFLOW:
		/* overflow can only ever occur in the last urb */
		usbi_dbg("overflow, actual_length=%d", urb->actual_length);
		if (tpriv->reap_status == LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED)
			tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_OVERFLOW;
		goto completed;
	case -ETIME:
	case -EPROTO:
	case -EILSEQ:
	case -ECOMM:
	case -ENOSR:
		usbi_dbg("low level error %d", urb->status);
		tpriv->reap_action = ERROR;
		goto cancel_remaining;
	default:
		usbi_warn(ITRANSFER_CTX(itransfer),
			"unrecognised urb status %d", urb->status);
		tpriv->reap_action = ERROR;
		goto cancel_remaining;
	}

	/* if we're the last urb or we got less data than requested then we're
	 * done */
	if (urb_idx == tpriv->num_urbs - 1) {
		usbi_dbg("last URB in transfer --> complete!");
		goto completed;
	} else if (urb->actual_length < urb->buffer_length) {
		usbi_dbg("short transfer %d/%d --> complete!",
			urb->actual_length, urb->buffer_length);
		if (tpriv->reap_action == NORMAL)
			tpriv->reap_action = COMPLETED_EARLY;
	} else
		goto out_unlock;

cancel_remaining:
	if (ERROR == tpriv->reap_action && LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED == tpriv->reap_status)
		tpriv->reap_status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;

	if (tpriv->num_retired == tpriv->num_urbs) /* nothing to cancel */
		goto completed;

	/* cancel remaining urbs and wait for their completion before
	 * reporting results */
	discard_urbs(itransfer, urb_idx + 1, tpriv->num_urbs);

out_unlock:
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
	return 0;

completed:
	free(tpriv->urbs);
	tpriv->urbs = NULL;
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
	return CANCELLED == tpriv->reap_action ?
		usbi_handle_transfer_cancellation(itransfer) :
		usbi_handle_transfer_completion(itransfer, tpriv->reap_status);
}

static int handle_iso_completion(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer,
	struct usbfs_urb *urb)
{
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer =
		USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	int num_urbs = tpriv->num_urbs;
	int urb_idx = 0;
	int i;
	enum libusb_transfer_status status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED;

	usbi_mutex_lock(&itransfer->lock);
	for (i = 0; i < num_urbs; i++) {
		if (urb == tpriv->iso_urbs[i]) {
			urb_idx = i + 1;
			break;
		}
	}
	if (urb_idx == 0) {
		usbi_err(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer), "could not locate urb!");
		usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_FOUND;
	}

	usbi_dbg("handling completion status %d of iso urb %d/%d", urb->status,
		urb_idx, num_urbs);

	/* copy isochronous results back in */

	for (i = 0; i < urb->number_of_packets; i++) {
		struct usbfs_iso_packet_desc *urb_desc = &urb->iso_frame_desc[i];
		struct libusb_iso_packet_descriptor *lib_desc =
			&transfer->iso_packet_desc[tpriv->iso_packet_offset++];
		lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED;
		switch (urb_desc->status) {
		case 0:
			break;
		case -ENOENT: /* cancelled */
		case -ECONNRESET:
			break;
		case -ENODEV:
		case -ESHUTDOWN:
			usbi_dbg("device removed");
			lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_NO_DEVICE;
			break;
		case -EPIPE:
			usbi_dbg("detected endpoint stall");
			lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_STALL;
			break;
		case -EOVERFLOW:
			usbi_dbg("overflow error");
			lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_OVERFLOW;
			break;
		case -ETIME:
		case -EPROTO:
		case -EILSEQ:
		case -ECOMM:
		case -ENOSR:
		case -EXDEV:
			usbi_dbg("low-level USB error %d", urb_desc->status);
			lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
			break;
		default:
			usbi_warn(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
				"unrecognised urb status %d", urb_desc->status);
			lib_desc->status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
			break;
		}
		lib_desc->actual_length = urb_desc->actual_length;
	}

	tpriv->num_retired++;

	if (tpriv->reap_action != NORMAL) { /* cancelled or submit_fail */
		usbi_dbg("CANCEL: urb status %d", urb->status);

		if (tpriv->num_retired == num_urbs) {
			usbi_dbg("CANCEL: last URB handled, reporting");
			free_iso_urbs(tpriv);
			if (tpriv->reap_action == CANCELLED) {
				usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
				return usbi_handle_transfer_cancellation(itransfer);
			} else {
				usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
				return usbi_handle_transfer_completion(itransfer,
					LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR);
			}
		}
		goto out;
	}

	switch (urb->status) {
	case 0:
		break;
	case -ENOENT: /* cancelled */
	case -ECONNRESET:
		break;
	case -ESHUTDOWN:
		usbi_dbg("device removed");
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_NO_DEVICE;
		break;
	default:
		usbi_warn(TRANSFER_CTX(transfer),
			"unrecognised urb status %d", urb->status);
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
		break;
	}

	/* if we're the last urb then we're done */
	if (urb_idx == num_urbs) {
		usbi_dbg("last URB in transfer --> complete!");
		free_iso_urbs(tpriv);
		usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
		return usbi_handle_transfer_completion(itransfer, status);
	}

out:
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
	return 0;
}

static int handle_control_completion(struct usbi_transfer *itransfer,
	struct usbfs_urb *urb)
{
	struct linux_transfer_priv *tpriv = usbi_transfer_get_os_priv(itransfer);
	int status;

	usbi_mutex_lock(&itransfer->lock);
	usbi_dbg("handling completion status %d", urb->status);

	itransfer->transferred += urb->actual_length;

	if (tpriv->reap_action == CANCELLED) {
		if (urb->status != 0 && urb->status != -ENOENT)
			usbi_warn(ITRANSFER_CTX(itransfer),
				"cancel: unrecognised urb status %d", urb->status);
		free(tpriv->urbs);
		tpriv->urbs = NULL;
		usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
		return usbi_handle_transfer_cancellation(itransfer);
	}

	switch (urb->status) {
	case 0:
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_COMPLETED;
		break;
	case -ENOENT: /* cancelled */
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_CANCELLED;
		break;
	case -ENODEV:
	case -ESHUTDOWN:
		usbi_dbg("device removed");
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_NO_DEVICE;
		break;
	case -EPIPE:
		usbi_dbg("unsupported control request");
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_STALL;
		break;
	case -EOVERFLOW:
		usbi_dbg("control overflow error");
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_OVERFLOW;
		break;
	case -ETIME:
	case -EPROTO:
	case -EILSEQ:
	case -ECOMM:
	case -ENOSR:
		usbi_dbg("low-level bus error occurred");
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
		break;
	default:
		usbi_warn(ITRANSFER_CTX(itransfer),
			"unrecognised urb status %d", urb->status);
		status = LIBUSB_TRANSFER_ERROR;
		break;
	}

	free(tpriv->urbs);
	tpriv->urbs = NULL;
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&itransfer->lock);
	return usbi_handle_transfer_completion(itransfer, status);
}

static int reap_for_handle(struct libusb_device_handle *handle)
{
	struct linux_device_handle_priv *hpriv = _device_handle_priv(handle);
	int r;
	struct usbfs_urb *urb;
	struct usbi_transfer *itransfer;
	struct libusb_transfer *transfer;

	r = ioctl(hpriv->fd, IOCTL_USBFS_REAPURBNDELAY, &urb);
	if (r == -1 && errno == EAGAIN)
		return 1;
	if (r < 0) {
		if (errno == ENODEV)
			return LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE;

		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "reap failed error %d errno=%d",
			r, errno);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_IO;
	}

	itransfer = urb->usercontext;
	transfer = USBI_TRANSFER_TO_LIBUSB_TRANSFER(itransfer);

	usbi_dbg("urb type=%d status=%d transferred=%d", urb->type, urb->status,
		urb->actual_length);

	switch (transfer->type) {
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_ISOCHRONOUS:
		return handle_iso_completion(itransfer, urb);
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_BULK:
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_INTERRUPT:
		return handle_bulk_completion(itransfer, urb);
	case LIBUSB_TRANSFER_TYPE_CONTROL:
		return handle_control_completion(itransfer, urb);
	default:
		usbi_err(HANDLE_CTX(handle), "unrecognised endpoint type %x",
			transfer->type);
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_OTHER;
	}
}

static int op_handle_events(struct libusb_context *ctx,
	struct pollfd *fds, POLL_NFDS_TYPE nfds, int num_ready)
{
	int r;
	int i = 0;

	usbi_mutex_lock(&ctx->open_devs_lock);
	for (i = 0; i < nfds && num_ready > 0; i++) {
		struct pollfd *pollfd = &fds[i];
		struct libusb_device_handle *handle;
		struct linux_device_handle_priv *hpriv = NULL;

		if (!pollfd->revents)
			continue;

		num_ready--;
		list_for_each_entry(handle, &ctx->open_devs, list, struct libusb_device_handle) {
			hpriv = _device_handle_priv(handle);
			if (hpriv->fd == pollfd->fd)
				break;
		}

		if (pollfd->revents & POLLERR) {
			usbi_remove_pollfd(HANDLE_CTX(handle), hpriv->fd);
			usbi_handle_disconnect(handle);
			continue;
		}

		r = reap_for_handle(handle);
		if (r == 1 || r == LIBUSB_ERROR_NO_DEVICE)
			continue;
		else if (r < 0)
			goto out;
	}

	r = 0;
out:
	usbi_mutex_unlock(&ctx->open_devs_lock);
	return r;
}

static int op_clock_gettime(int clk_id, struct timespec *tp)
{
	switch (clk_id) {
	case USBI_CLOCK_MONOTONIC:
		return clock_gettime(monotonic_clkid, tp);
	case USBI_CLOCK_REALTIME:
		return clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, tp);
	default:
		return LIBUSB_ERROR_INVALID_PARAM;
  }
}

#ifdef USBI_TIMERFD_AVAILABLE
static clockid_t op_get_timerfd_clockid(void)
{
	return monotonic_clkid;

}
#endif

const struct usbi_os_backend linux_usbfs_backend = {
	.name = "Linux usbfs",
	.init = op_init,
	.exit = NULL,
	.get_device_list = op_get_device_list,
	.get_device_descriptor = op_get_device_descriptor,
	.get_active_config_descriptor = op_get_active_config_descriptor,
	.get_config_descriptor = op_get_config_descriptor,

	.open = op_open,
	.close = op_close,
	.get_configuration = op_get_configuration,
	.set_configuration = op_set_configuration,
	.claim_interface = op_claim_interface,
	.release_interface = op_release_interface,

	.set_interface_altsetting = op_set_interface,
	.clear_halt = op_clear_halt,
	.reset_device = op_reset_device,

	.kernel_driver_active = op_kernel_driver_active,
	.detach_kernel_driver = op_detach_kernel_driver,
	.attach_kernel_driver = op_attach_kernel_driver,

	.destroy_device = op_destroy_device,

	.submit_transfer = op_submit_transfer,
	.cancel_transfer = op_cancel_transfer,
	.clear_transfer_priv = op_clear_transfer_priv,

	.handle_events = op_handle_events,

	.clock_gettime = op_clock_gettime,

#ifdef USBI_TIMERFD_AVAILABLE
	.get_timerfd_clockid = op_get_timerfd_clockid,
#endif

	.device_priv_size = sizeof(struct linux_device_priv),
	.device_handle_priv_size = sizeof(struct linux_device_handle_priv),
	.transfer_priv_size = sizeof(struct linux_transfer_priv),
	.add_iso_packet_size = 0,
};