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:Base del5op.hlp>main 
:Title Object Pascal Language Guide 
 
1 Object Pascal Reference 
2 Overview 
3 Object Pascal and Delphi=IDH_OP_overview 
3 Program organization 
4 Program organization: Overview=IDH_OP_programOrganization 
4 Pascal source files=IDH_OP_pascalSourceFiles 
4 Other files used to build applications=IDH_OP_otherFilesUsedtoBuildApplications 
4 Compiler-generated files=IDH_OP_compilerGeneratedFiles 
3 Example programs 
4 About example programs=IDH_OP_examplePrograms 
4 A simple console application=IDH_OP_simpleConsoleApplication 
4 A more complicated example=IDH_OP_complicatedExample 
4 A Windows application=IDH_OP_windowsApplication 
2 Programs and units 
3 Programs and units: Overview=IDH_OP_programsAndUnits 
3 Program structure and syntax 
4 Program structure and syntax: Overview=IDH_OP_programStructureAndSyntax 
4 The program heading=IDH_OP_theProgramHeading 
4 The program uses clause=IDH_OP_theProgramUsesClause 
4 The block=IDH_OP_theBlock 
3 Unit structure and syntax 
4 Unit structure and syntax: Overview=IDH_OP_unitStructureAndSyntax 
4 The unit heading=IDH_OP_theUnitHeading 
4 The interface section=IDH_OP_theInterfaceSection 
4 The implementation section=IDH_OP_theImplementationSection 
4 The initialization section=IDH_OP_theInitializationSection 
4 The finalization section=IDH_OP_theFinalizationSection 
3 Unit references and the uses clause 
4 Unit references and the uses clause=IDH_OP_unitReferencesAndTheUsesClause 
4 The syntax of a uses clause=IDH_OP_theSyntaxOfAUsesClause 
4 Multiple and indirect unit references=IDH_OP_multipleAndIndirectUnitReferences 
4 Circular unit references=IDH_OP_circularUnitReferences 
2 Syntactic elements 
3 Syntactic elements: Overview=IDH_OP_syntacticElements 
3 Fundamental syntactic elements 
4 Fundamental syntactic elements: Overview=IDH_OP_fundamentalSyntacticElements 
4 Special symbols=IDH_OP_specialSymbols 
4 Identifiers=IDH_OP_identifiers 
4 Reserved words=IDH_OP_reservedWords 
4 Directives=IDH_OP_directives 
4 Numerals=IDH_OP_numerals 
4 Labels=IDH_OP_labels 
4 Character strings=IDH_OP_characterStrings 
2 Comments and compiler directives=IDH_OP_commentsAndCompilerDirectives 
3 Expressions 
4 About expressions=IDH_OP_expressions 
4 Operators 
5 About operators=IDH_OP_operators 
5 Arithmetic operators=IDH_OP_arithmeticOperators 
5 Boolean operators=IDH_OP_booleanOperators 
5 Logical (bitwise) operators=IDH_OP_logicalOperators 
5 String operators=IDH_OP_stringOperators 
5 Pointer operators=IDH_OP_pointerOperators 
5 Set operators=IDH_OP_setOperators 
5 Relational operators=IDH_OP_relationalOperators 
5 Class operators=IDH_OP_classOperators 
5 The @ operator=IDH_OP_addressOperator 
5 Operator precedence rules=IDH_OP_operatorPrecedenceRules 
3 Function calls=IDH_OP_functionCalls 
4 Set constructors=IDH_OP_setConstructors 
4 Indexes=IDH_OP_indexes 
4 Typecasts 
5 Typecasts: Overview=IDH_OP_typecasts 
5 Value typecasts=IDH_OP_valueTypecasts 
5 Variable typecasts=IDH_OP_variableTypecasts 
3 Declarations and statements 
4 About declarations and statements=IDH_OP_declarationsAndStatements 
4 Declarations=IDH_OP_declarations 
4 Statements=IDH_OP_statements 
4 Simple statements 
5 Simple statements: Overview=IDH_OP_simpleStatements 
5 Assignment statements=IDH_OP_assignmentStatements 
5 Procedure and function calls=IDH_OP_procedureAndFunctionCalls 
5 Goto statements=IDH_OP_gotoStatements 
4 Structured statements 
5 Structured statements: Overview=IDH_OP_structuredStatements 
5 Compound statements=IDH_OP_compoundStatements 
5 With statements=IDH_OP_withStatements 
5 If statements=IDH_OP_ifStatements 
5 Case statements=IDH_OP_caseStatements 
5 Control loops=IDH_OP_controlLoops 
5 Repeat statements=IDH_OP_repeatStatements 
5 While statements=IDH_OP_whileStatements 
5 For statements=IDH_OP_forStatements 
3 Blocks and scope 
4 Blocks and scope: Overview=IDH_OP_blocksAndScope 
4 Blocks=IDH_OP_blocks 
4 Scope=IDH_OP_scope 
2 Data types, variables, and constants 
3 Data types and variables: Overview=IDH_OP_datatypesVariablesAndConstants 
3 About types=IDH_OP_aboutTypes 
3 Simple types 
4 Simple types: Overview=IDH_OP_simpleTypes 
4 Ordinal types 
5 Ordinal types: Overview=IDH_OP_ordinalTypes 
5 Integer types=IDH_OP_integerTypes 
5 Character types=IDH_OP_characterTypes 
5 Boolean types=IDH_OP_booleanTypes 
5 Enumerated types=IDH_OP_enumeratedTypes 
5 Subrange types=IDH_OP_subrangeTypes 
3 Real types=IDH_OP_realTypes 
3 String types 
4 About string types=IDH_OP_stringTypes 
4 Short strings=IDH_OP_shortStrings 
4 Long strings=IDH_OP_longStrings 
4 Wide strings 
5 WideString=IDH_OP_wideString 
5 About extended character sets=IDH_OP_extendedCharacterSets 
4 Null-terminated strings 
5 Working with null-terminated strings=IDH_OP_nullTerminatedStrings 
5 Using pointers, arrays, and string constants=IDH_OP_pointersArraysAndStringConstants 
5 Mixing Pascal strings and null-terminated strings=IDH_OP_mixingPascalAndNullTerminatedStrings 
3 Structured types 
4 Structured types: Overview=IDH_OP_structuredTypes 
4 Sets=IDH_OP_sets 
4 Arrays 
5 Arrays: Overview=IDH_OP_arrays 
5 Static arrays=IDH_OP_staticArrays 
5 Dynamic arrays=IDH_OP_dynamicArrays 
5 Multidimensional dynamic arrays=IDH_OP_multidimensionalDynamicArrays 
5 Array types and assignments=IDH_OP_arrayTypesAndAssignments 
4 Records 
5 About records=IDH_OP_records 
5 Variant parts in records=IDH_OP_variantPartsInRecords 
3 File types=IDH_OP_fileTypes 
3 Pointers and pointer types 
4 Pointers and pointer types=IDH_OP_pointersAndPointerTypes 
4 Overview of pointers=IDH_OP_overviewOfPointers 
4 Pointer types 
5 About pointer types=IDH_OP_pointerTypes 
5 Character pointers=IDH_OP_characterPointers 
5 Other standard pointer types=IDH_OP_standardPointerTypes 
3 Procedural types 
4 Procedural types: Overview=IDH_OP_proceduralTypes 
4 Procedural types in statements and expressions=IDH_OP_proceduralTypesInStatementsAndExpressions 
3 Variant types 
4 Variant types: Overview=IDH_OP_variantTypes 
4 Variant type conversions=IDH_OP_variantTypeConversions 
4 Variants in expressions=IDH_OP_variantsInExpressions 
4 Variant arrays=IDH_OP_variantArrays 
4 OleVariant=IDH_OP_oleVariant 
3 Type compatibility and identity 
4 Type compatibility and identity: Overview=IDH_OP_typeCompatibilityAndIdentity 
4 Type identity=IDH_OP_typeIdentity 
4 Type compatibility=IDH_OP_typeCompatibility 
4 Assignment-compatibility=IDH_OP_assignmentCompatibility 
3 Declaring types 
4 Declaring types=IDH_OP_declaringTypes 
3 Variables 
4 Variables: Overview=IDH_OP_variables 
4 Declaring variables 
5 Declaring variables=IDH_OP_declaringVariables 
5 Absolute addresses=IDH_OP_absoluteAddresses 
5 Dynamic variables=IDH_OP_dynamicVariables 
5 Thread-local variables=IDH_OP_threadLocalVariables 
3 Declared constants 
4 Constants: Overview=IDH_OP_constants 
4 True constants 
5 True constants=IDH_OP_trueConstants 
5 Constant expressions=IDH_OP_constantExpressions 
5 Resource strings=IDH_OP_resourceStrings 
4 Typed constants 
5 About typed constants=IDH_OP_typedConstants 
5 Array constants=IDH_OP_arrayConstants 
5 Record constants=IDH_OP_recordConstants 
5 Procedural constants=IDH_OP_proceduralConstants 
5 Pointer constants=IDH_OP_pointerConstants 
2 Procedures and functions 
3 Procedures and functions: Overview=IDH_OP_proceduresAndFunctions 
3 Declaring procedures and functions 
4 Declaring procedures and functions: Overview=IDH_OP_declaringProceduresAndFunctions 
4 Procedure declarations=IDH_OP_declaringProcedures 
4 Function declarations=IDH_OP_declaringFunctions 
4 Calling conventions=IDH_OP_callingConventions 
4 Forward and interface declarations=IDH_OP_forwardAndInterfaceDeclarations 
4 External declarations=IDH_OP_externalDeclarations 
4 Overloading procedures and functions=IDH_OP_overloadingProceduresAndFunctions 
4 Local declarations=IDH_OP_localDeclarations 
3 Parameters 
4 Parameters: Overview=IDH_OP_parameters 
4 Parameter semantics 
5 Parameter semantics: Overview=IDH_OP_parameterSemantics 
5 Value and variable parameters=IDH_OP_valueAndVariableParameters 
5 Constant parameters=IDH_OP_constantParameters 
5 Out parameters=IDH_OP_outParameters 
5 Untyped parameters=IDH_OP_untypedParameters 
4 String parameters 
5 About string parameters=IDH_OP_stringParameters 
4 Array parameters 
5 Array parameters: Overview=IDH_OP_arrayParameters 
5 Open array parameters=IDH_OP_openArrayParameters 
5 Variant open array parameters=IDH_OP_variantOpenArrayParameters 
4 Default parameters 
5 Default parameters=IDH_OP_defaultParameters 
5 Default parameters and overloaded routines=IDH_OP_defaultParametersAndOverloadedRoutines 
5 Default parameters in forward and interface declarations=IDH_OP_defaultParametersInForwardAndInterfaceDeclarations 
3 Calling procedures and functions 
4 Calling procedures and functions=IDH_OP_callingProceduresAndFunctions 
4 Open array constructors=IDH_OP_openArrayConstructors 
2 Classes and objects 
3 Classes and objects: Overview=IDH_OP_classesAndObjects 
3 Class types 
4 About class types=IDH_OP_classTypes 
4 Inheritance and scope 
5 Inheritance and scope=IDH_OP_inheritanceAndScope 
5 TObject and TClass=IDH_OP_tobjectAndTClass 
5 Compatibility of class types=IDH_OP_compatibilityOfClassTypes 
5 Object types=IDH_OP_objectTypes 
4 Visibility of class members 
5 Visibility of class members=IDH_OP_visibilityOfClassMembers 
5 Private, protected, and public members=IDH_OP_privateProtectedAndPublicMembers 
5 Published members=IDH_OP_publishedMembers 
5 Automated members=IDH_OP_automatedMembers 
3 Forward declarations and mutually dependent classes=IDH_OP_forwardDeclarationsAndMutuallyDependentClasses 
2 Fields=IDH_OP_fields 
3 Methods 
4 Methods: Overview=IDH_OP_methods 
4 Method implementations 
5 Method implementations=IDH_OP_methodImplementations 
5 Inherited=IDH_OP_inherited 
5 Self=IDH_OP_self 
4 Method binding 
5 Method binding: Overview=IDH_OP_methodBinding 
5 Static methods=IDH_OP_staticMethods 
5 Virtual and dynamic methods=IDH_OP_virtualAndDynamicMethods 
5 Overriding versus hiding=IDH_OP_overridingVersusHiding 
5 Reintroduce=IDH_OP_reintroduce 
5 Abstract methods=IDH_OP_abstractMethods 
3 Overloading methods=IDH_OP_overloadingMethods 
4 Constructors=IDH_OP_constructors 
4 Destructors=IDH_OP_destructors 
4 Message handlers=IDH_OP_messageHandlers 
3 Properties 
4 Properties: Overview=IDH_OP_properties 
4 Property access=IDH_OP_propertyAccess 
4 Array properties=IDH_OP_arrayProperties 
4 Index specifiers=IDH_OP_indexSpecifiers 
4 Storage specifiers=IDH_OP_storageSpecifiers 
4 Property overrides and redeclarations=IDH_OP_propertyOverridesAndRedeclarations 
3 Class references 
4 Class references: Overview=IDH_OP_classReferences 
4 Class-reference types=IDH_OP_classReferenceTypes 
4 Constructors and class references=IDH_OP_constructorsAndClassReferences 
4 Class operators 
5 Class operators: Overview=IDH_OP_overviewClassOperators 
5 The is operator=IDH_OP_isOperator 
5 The as operator=IDH_OP_asOperator 
3 Class methods=IDH_OP_classMethods 
3 Exceptions 
4 Exceptions: Overview=IDH_OP_exceptions 
4 Declaring exception types=IDH_OP_declaringExceptionTypes 
4 Raising and handling exceptions 
5 Raising and handling exceptions=IDH_OP_raisingAndHandlingExceptions 
5 Try...except statements=IDH_OP_tryExceptStatements 
5 Re-raising exceptions=IDH_OP_reraisingExceptions 
5 Nested exceptions=IDH_OP_nestedExceptions 
5 Try...finally statements=IDH_OP_tryFinallyStatements 
3 Standard exception classes and routines=IDH_OP_standardExceptionClassesAndRoutines 
2 Standard routines and I/O 
3 Standard routines and I/O: Overview=IDH_OP_standardRoutinesAndIO 
3 File input and output 
4 File input and output=IDH_OP_fileIO 
4 Text files=IDH_OP_textFiles 
4 Untyped files=IDH_OP_untypedFiles 
3Text-file device drivers 
4 Text-file device drivers: Overview=IDH_OP_textFileDeviceDrivers 
4 Device functions=IDH_OP_deviceFunctions 
2 Handling null-terminated strings=IDH_OP_handlingNullTerminatedStrings 
3 Other standard routines=IDH_OP_otherStandardRoutines 
2 Dynamic-link libraries and packages 
3 Dynamic-link libraries: Overview=IDH_OP_dynamicLinkLibrariesAndPackages 
3 Calling DLLs 
4 Calling DLLs=IDH_OP_callingDlls 
4 Dynamic loading=IDH_OP_dynamicLoading 
3 Writing DLLs 
4 Writing DLLs=IDH_OP_writingDlls 
4 The exports clause=IDH_OP_theExportsClause 
4 Library initialization code=IDH_OP_libraryInitializationCode 
4 Global variables in a DLL=IDH_OP_globalVariablesInADll 
4 DLLs and System variables=IDH_OP_dllsAndSystemVariables 
4 Exceptions and runtime errors in DLLs=IDH_OP_exceptionsAndRuntimeErrorsInDlls 
4 The shared-memory manager=IDH_OP_theSharedMemoryManager 
3 Packages 
4 Packages: Overview=IDH_OP_packages 
4 Package declarations and source files 
5 Package declarations and source files=IDH_OP_packageDeclarationsAndSourceFiles 
5 Naming packages=IDH_OP_namingPackages 
5 The requires clause=IDH_OP_theRequiresClause 
5 The contains clause=IDH_OP_theContainsClause 
4 Compiling packages 
5 Compiling packages: Overview=IDH_OP_compilingPackages 
5 Generated files=IDH_OP_generatedFiles 
5 Package-specific compiler directives=IDH_OP_packageSpecificCompilerDirectives 
5 Package-specific command-line compiler switches=IDH_OP_packageSpecificCommandLineCompilerSwitches 
2 Object interfaces 
3 Object interfaces: Overview=IDH_OP_objectInterfaces 
3 Interface types 
4 Interface types: Overview=IDH_OP_interfaceTypes 
4 IUnknown and inheritance=IDH_OP_iunknownAndInheritance 
4 Interface identification=IDH_OP_interfaceIdentification 
4 Calling conventions=IDH_OP_interfaceCallingConventions 
4 Interface properties=IDH_OP_interfaceProperties 
4 Forward declarations=IDH_OP_forwardDeclarations 
3 Implementing interfaces 
4 Implementing interfaces=IDH_OP_implementingInterfaces 
4 Method resolution clauses=IDH_OP_methodResolutionClauses 
4 Changing inherited implementations=IDH_OP_changingInheritedImplementations 
4 Implementing interfaces by delegation 
5 Implementing interfaces by delegation=IDH_OP_implementingInterfacesByDelegation 
5 Delegating to an interface-type property=IDH_OP_delegatingToAnInterfaceTypeProperty 
5 Delegating to a class-type property=IDH_OP_delegatingToAClassTypeProperty 
3 Interface references 
4 Interface references=IDH_OP_interfaceReferences 
4 Interface assignment-compatibility=IDH_OP_interfaceAssignmentCompatibility 
3 Interface typecasts=IDH_OP_interfaceTypecasts 
3 Interface querying=IDH_OP_interfaceQuerying 
3 Automation objects 
4 Automation objects: Overview=IDH_OP_automationObjects 
4 Dispatch interface types=IDH_OP_dispatchInterfaceTypes 
4 Accessing Automation objects=IDH_OP_accessingAutomationObjects 
4 Dual interfaces=IDH_OP_dualInterfaces 
2 Memory management 
3 Memory management: Overview=IDH_OP_memoryManagement 
3 Variables=IDH_OP_variablesM 
3 Integer types=IDH_OP_integerTypesM 
3 Character types=IDH_OP_characterTypesM 
3 Boolean types=IDH_OP_booleanTypesM 
3 Enumerated types=IDH_OP_enumeratedTypesM 
3 Real types=IDH_OP_realTypesM 
3 Pointer types=IDH_OP_pointerTypesM 
3 Short string types=IDH_OP_shortStringTypesM 
3 Long string types=IDH_OP_longStringTypesM 
3 Wide string types=IDH_OP_wideStringTypesM 
3 Set types=IDH_OP_setTypesM 
3 Static array types=IDH_OP_staticArrayTypesM 
3 Dynamic array types=IDH_OP_dynamicArrayTypesM 
3 Record types=IDH_OP_recordTypesM 
3 File types=IDH_OP_fileTypesM 
3 Procedural types=IDH_OP_proceduralTypesM 
3 Class types=IDH_OP_classTypesM 
3 Class reference types=IDH_OP_classReferenceTypesM 
3 Variant types=IDH_OP_variantTypesM 
2 Program control 
3 Program control: Overview=IDH_OP_programControl 
3 Parameters and function results 
4 Parameters and function results: Overview=IDH_OP_parametersAndFunctionResults 
4 Parameter passing=IDH_OP_parameterPassing 
4 Function results=IDH_OP_functionResuts 
4 Method calls=IDH_OP_methodCalls 
4 Constructors and destructors=IDH_OP_constructorsAndDestructors 
2 Exit procedures=IDH_OP_exitProcedures 
2 Inline assembler code 
3 Inline assembler code: Overview=IDH_OP_inlineAssemblerCode 
3 The asm statement=IDH_OP_theAsmStatement 
3 Assembler statement syntax 
4 Assembler statement syntax=IDH_OP_assemblerStatementSyntax 
4 Labels=IDH_OP_assemblerLabels 
4 Instruction opcodes=IDH_OP_instructionOpcodes 
4 Assembler directives=IDH_OP_assemblerDirectives 
4 Operands=IDH_OP_operands 
3 Expressions 
4 Expressions: Overview=IDH_OP_assemblerExpressions 
4 Differences between Object Pascal and assembler expressions=IDH_OP_differencesBetweenObjectPascalAndAssemblerExpressions 
4 Expression elements 
5 Expression elements: Overview=IDH_OP_expressionElements 
5 Constants=IDH_OP_assemblerConstants 
5 Registers=IDH_OP_registers 
5 Symbols=IDH_OP_symbols 
3 Expression classes=IDH_OP_expressionClasses 
4 Expression types=IDH_OP_expressionTypes 
4 Expression operators=IDH_OP_expressionOperators 
2 Assembler procedures and functions=IDH_OP_assemblerProceduresAndFunctions 
2 Object Pascal grammar 
3 Formal grammar=IDH_OP_objectPascalGrammar