www.pudn.com > lianma.rar > fchcode.m, change:2004-12-16,size:8758b

```function  c = fchcode(b, conn, dir)
%FCHCODE Computes the Freeman chain code of a boundary.
%   C = FCHCODE(B) computes the 8-connected Freeman chain code of a
%   set of 2-D coordinate pairs contained in B, an np-by-2 array. C
%   is a structure with the following fields:
%
%     c.fcc    = Freeman chain code (1-by-np)
%     c.diff   = First difference of code c.fcc (1-by-np)
%     c.mm     = Integer of minimum magnitude from c.fcc (1-by-np)
%     c.diffmm = First difference of code c.mm (1-by-np)
%     c.x0y0   = Coordinates where the code starts (1-by-2)
%
%   C = FCHCODE(B, CONN) produces the same outputs as above, but
%   with the code connectivity specified in CONN. CONN can be 8 for
%   an 8-connected chain code, or CONN can be 4 for a 4-connected
%   chain code. Specifying CONN=4 is valid only if the input
%   sequence, B, contains transitions with values 0, 2, 4, and 6,
%   exclusively.
%
%   C = FHCODE(B, CONN, DIR) produces the same outputs as above, but,
%   in addition, the desired code direction is specified. Values for
%   DIR can be:
%
%     'same'      Same as the order of the sequence of points in b.
%                 This is the default.
%
%     'reverse'   Outputs the code in the direction opposite to the
%                 direction of the points in B.  The starting point
%                 for each DIR is the same.
%
%   The elements of B are assumed to correspond to a 1-pixel-thick,
%   fully-connected, closed boundary. B cannot contain duplicate
%   coordinate pairs, except in the first and last positions, which
%   is a common feature of boundary tracing programs.
%
%   FREEMAN CHAIN CODE REPRESENTATION
%   The table on the left shows the 8-connected Freeman chain codes
%   corresponding to allowed deltax, deltay pairs. An 8-chain is
%   converted to a 4-chain if (1) if conn = 4; and (2) only
%   transitions 0, 2, 4, and 6 occur in the 8-code.  Note that
%   dividing 0, 2, 4, and 6 by 2 produce the 4-code.
%
%       -----------------------  ----------------
%       deltax | deltay | 8-code  corresp 4-code
%       -----------------------  ----------------
%         0        1       0            0
%        -1        1       1
%        -1        0       2            1
%        -1       -1       3
%         0       -1       4            2
%         1       -1       5
%         1        0       6            3
%         1        1       7
%       -----------------------  ----------------
%
%   The formula z = 4*(deltax + 2) + (deltay + 2) gives the following
%   sequence corresponding to rows 1-8 in the preceding table: z =
%   11,7,6,5,9,13,14,15. These values can be used as indices into the
%   table, improving the speed of computing the chain code. The
%   preceding formula is not unique, but it is based on the smallest
%   integers (4 and 2) that are powers of 2.

%   Copyright 2002-2004 R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, & S. L. Eddins
%   Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB, Prentice-Hall, 2004
%   \$Revision: 1.6 \$  \$Date: 2003/11/21 14:34:49 \$

% Preliminaries.
if nargin == 1
dir = 'same';
conn = 8;
elseif nargin == 2
dir = 'same';
elseif nargin == 3
% Nothing to do here.
else
error('Incorrect number of inputs.')
end
[np, nc] = size(b);
if np < nc
error('B must be of size np-by-2.');
end

% Some boundary tracing programs, such as boundaries.m, output a
% sequence in which the coordinates of the first and last points are
% the same. If this is the case, eliminate the last point.
if isequal(b(1, :), b(np, :))
np = np - 1;
b = b(1:np, :);
end

% Build the code table using the single indices from the formula
% for z given above:
C(11)=0; C(7)=1; C(6)=2; C(5)=3; C(9)=4;
C(13)=5; C(14)=6; C(15)=7;

% End of Preliminaries.

% Begin processing.
x0 = b(1, 1);
y0 = b(1, 2);
c.x0y0 = [x0, y0];

% Make sure the coordinates are organized sequentially:
% Get the deltax and deltay between successive points in b. The
% last row of a is the first row of b.
a = circshift(b, [-1, 0]);

% DEL = a - b is an nr-by-2 matrix in which the rows contain the
% deltax and deltay between successive points in b. The two
% components in the kth row of matrix DEL are deltax and deltay
% between point (xk, yk) and (xk+1, yk+1).  The last row of DEL
% contains the deltax and deltay between (xnr, ynr) and (x1, y1),
% (i.e., between the last and first points in b).
DEL = a - b;

% If the abs value of either (or both) components of a pair
% (deltax, deltay) is greater than 1, then by definition the curve
% is broken (or the points are out of order), and the program
% terminates.
if any(abs(DEL(:, 1)) > 1) | any(abs(DEL(:, 2)) > 1);
error('The input curve is broken or points are out of order.')
end

% Create a single index vector using the formula described above.
z = 4*(DEL(:, 1) + 2) + (DEL(:, 2) + 2);

% Use the index to map into the table. The following are
% the Freeman 8-chain codes, organized in a 1-by-np array.
fcc = C(z);

% Check if direction of code sequence needs to be reversed.
if strcmp(dir, 'reverse')
fcc = coderev(fcc); % See below for function coderev.
end

% If 4-connectivity is specified, check that all components
% of fcc are 0, 2, 4, or 6.
if conn == 4
val = find(fcc == 1 | fcc == 3 | fcc == 5 | fcc ==7 );
if isempty(val)
fcc = fcc./2;
else
warning('The specified 4-connected code cannot be satisfied.')
end
end

% Freeman chain code for structure output.
c.fcc = fcc;

% Obtain the first difference of fcc.
c.diff = codediff(fcc,conn); % See below for function codediff.

% Obtain code of the integer of minimum magnitude.
c.mm = minmag(fcc); % See below for function minmag.

% Obtain the first difference of fcc
c.diffmm = codediff(c.mm, conn);

%-------------------------------------------------------------------%
function cr = coderev(fcc)
%   Traverses the sequence of 8-connected Freeman chain code fcc in
%   the opposite direction, changing the values of each code
%   segment. The starting point is not changed. fcc is a 1-by-np
%   array.

% Flip the array left to right.  This redefines the starting point
% as the last point and reverses the order of "travel" through the
% code.
cr = fliplr(fcc);

% Next, obtain the new code values by traversing the code in the
% opposite direction. (0 becomes 4, 1 becomes 5, ... , 5 becomes 1,
% 6 becomes 2, and 7 becomes 3).
ind1 = find(0 <= cr & cr <= 3);
ind2 = find(4 <= cr & cr <= 7);
cr(ind1) = cr(ind1) + 4;
cr(ind2) = cr(ind2) - 4;

%-------------------------------------------------------------------%
function z = minmag(c)
%MINMAG Finds the integer of minimum magnitude in a chain code.
%   Z = MINMAG(C) finds the integer of minimum magnitude in a given
%   4- or 8-connected Freeman chain code, C. The code is assumed to
%   be a 1-by-np array.

% The integer of minimum magnitude starts with min(c), but there
% may be more than one such value. Find them all,
I = find(c == min(c));
% and shift each one left so that it starts with min(c).
J = 0;
A = zeros(length(I), length(c));
for k = I;
J = J + 1;
A(J, :) = circshift(c,[0 -(k-1)]);
end

% Matrix A contains all the possible candidates for the integer of
% minimum magnitude. Starting with the 2nd column, succesively find
% the minima in each column of A. The number of candidates decreases
% as the seach moves to the right on A.  This is reflected in the
% elements of J.  When length(J)=1, one candidate remains.  This is
% the integer of minimum magnitude.
[M, N] = size(A);
J = (1:M)';
for k = 2:N
D(1:M, 1) = Inf;
D(J, 1) = A(J, k);
amin = min(A(J, k));
J = find(D(:, 1) == amin);
if length(J)==1
z = A(J, :);
return
end
end

%-------------------------------------------------------------------%
function d = codediff(fcc, conn)
%CODEDIFF Computes the first difference of a chain code.
%   D = CODEDIFF(FCC) computes the first difference of code, FCC. The
%   code FCC is treated as a circular sequence, so the last element
%   of D is the difference between the last and first elements of
%   FCC.  The input code is a 1-by-np vector.
%
%   The first difference is found by counting the number of direction
%   changes (in a counter-clockwise direction) that separate two
%   adjacent elements of the code.

sr = circshift(fcc, [0, -1]); % Shift input left by 1 location.
delta = sr - fcc;
d = delta;
I = find(delta < 0);

type = conn;
switch type
case 4 % Code is 4-connected
d(I) = d(I) + 4;
case 8 % Code is 8-connected
d(I) = d(I) + 8;
end

```